According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation (Russia) there are levels of legal institutions (Art. 118, Part 2):
– The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation
– The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation
– Courts of the subjects of the Russian Federation (Supreme Courts of the smaller republics in remote parts of the Russian Federation); regional – «krai», «oblast», «autonomous regions» courts; Moscow and St. Petersburg city court
– Area (district) and city courts
– Martial courts
– Arbitral courts (the Supreme Arbitral Court of the Russian Federation; arbitral courts of the subjects of the Russian Federation).
The goals of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation are protection of Russian sovereignty; defence of the constitutional structure; defence of the general rights and freedoms of population; and guarantee of the application of the Russian Constitution in all territories of the Russian Federation. Martial courts are included in the common legal system. The arbitral courts resolve disputes between juridical persons.
It is a pity, but contemporary Russian judicial system is not independent. First, many judges are very corrupted. Secondly, many courts depend upon politicians and power. For example, often the Basmany court would decide a case in favor of a power base. «Basmany court» is now common jargon for lack of independence and injustice in the Russian justice system.
Finally, there are the «mirovye sud'i» (magistracy). They try cases that are not very important (administrative and civil delicts, minor criminal delinquency).
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