Соня Шахi / Мария Десятоваi / Литагент Альпинаi

Книга: Пандемия: Всемирная история смертельных вирусов

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· #1

А. Камю «Чума». Пер. Н. М. Жарковой.

· #2

«Штамм "Андромеда"» – научно-фантастический роман американского писателя Майкла Крайтона, изданный в 1969 году. – Прим. пер.

· #3

Здесь и далее в книге под патогенами подразумеваются патогены-микроорганизмы, поскольку именно о них идет рассказ. Вообще же, в широком смысле, патогеном может называться любой фактор внешней среды, вызывающий в организме болезненные изменения. – Прим. пер.

· #4

По поводу причин этой вспышки не существует общего мнения. Многие эксперты считают, что либо комары – носители вируса смогли перенести перелет на самолете, либо вирус был занесен в результате нелегальной торговли экзотическими птицами. – Прим. науч. ред.

· #5

Азимина («банановое дерево») – низкорослое дерево или кустарник семейства анноновых, происходящее из США и распространенное там; плоды употребляются в пищу. – Прим. ред.

· #6

Плазмида – внехромосомная ДНК, короткий фрагмент, как правило, закольцованный, благодаря чему не присоединяется к собственно клеточной ДНК, а существует автономно. Впервые обнаружены у бактерий, стали обширно применяться в качестве инструмента при исследованиях генома. Позднее было выяснено, что плазмиды в природе могут передаваться как от одних бактерий другим (это происходит постоянно и является эффективным способом их эволюции), так и (вероятно, довольно редко) от бактерий высшим многоклеточным организмам, обеспечивая так называемый «горизонтальный перенос генов» между неродственными видами: при определенных условиях плазмиды способны встроиться в хромосомную ДНК или ДНК бактерии и закрепиться в геноме. – Прим. ред.

· #7

Ранее в книге речь шла о плазмидах – фрагментах бактериальной ДНК, способных существовать автономно и переносить генетический материал от одной бактерии к другой. Бактериофаги – вирусы бактерий (представляющие во многих случаях тоже фрагмент ДНК, только дополнительно «упакованный» в белковую оболочку) – могут действовать точно таким же образом. – Прим. ред.

· #8

Значительная часть бактериофагов – РНК-содержащая. Фаги, которые встраиваются в геном бактерии (лизогенные), – малая часть от общего числа, остальные – обычные вирулентные, которые тем не менее могут захватывать куски бактериальной ДНК при упаковке в белковую оболочку. Например, нелизогенные фаги E. coli Т2 и Т4 используются в генетической инженерии как раз для переноса ДНК между бактериями (трансдукция). – Прим. науч. ред.

· #9

Кроме того, распространению инфекции среди домашней птицы способствует тот же фактор, что и среди жителей больших городов, особенно бедных трущоб: в то время как дикая птица, заболев, изменяет свое поведение и скоро выпадает из контактов с себе подобными, тем самым снижая вероятность заражения других представителей вида, домашняя в случае заболевания остается в прежнем окружении и сохраняет тесный контакт с соседями. – Прим. ред.

· #10

Клада (монофилетический таксон) – термин кладистики, особого подхода к систематике живых организмов, означающий таксон (систематическую группу), который объединяет совершенно определенно лишь виды, имеющие общее происхождение (это выясняется по данным генетического анализа). В то же время таксоны, принятые в традиционной систематике, объединяют виды по сходным признакам, и может случиться, что на самом деле они имеют разное происхождение, а сходство обусловлено конвергентной эволюцией (одинаковым эволюционным результатом при действии одних и тех же факторов среды). Такие таксоны, объединяющие виды фактически разного происхождения, называются полифилетическими. Современная систематика старается, по возможности, избавиться от полифилетической классификации и по-новому объединить систематические группы, если становится известно об их действительной степени родства. Однако точно установить родство на основании генетических методов, если это касается не отдельных индивидуумов, а целых видов, родов и т. д., не так-то просто. Поэтому на нынешнем этапе развития науки кладистика – тема ожесточенных споров ученых и почва для столкновения разных подходов. Однако в применении к конкретному случаю, о котором здесь идет речь, все вполне ясно: вирусы настолько просты, что по их ДНК можно уверенно проанализировать их «генеалогическое древо». – Прим. ред.

· #11

В 1911 году исполнилось 50 лет Королевству Италия (1861–1946) – государству, возникшему в результате объединения всех независимых итальянских государств под властью Савойской династии. В 1946 году был проведен референдум, упразднивший монархию. – Прим. пер.

· #12

Английское слово superbug означает микроорганизмы, резистентные к большому числу антибиотиков. В русском языке точный перевод пока не сложился. – Прим. науч. ред.

· #13

По сравнению с лекарствами для хронических заболеваний, которые люди могут принимать десятками лет. – Прим. науч. ред.

· #14

План Фонда Гейтсов по искоренению малярии основывается на массированном использовании токсичного вещества ДДТ (как «наиболее эффективного») для уничтожения популяций малярийных комаров в местах их массового распространения, что большинство специалистов признают довольно сомнительным способом «оздоровления населения». В частности, против этого выступают многочисленные организации «зеленых» вроде Greenpeace, призывая вместо этого сосредоточиться на развитии более современных, пусть и не готовых для немедленного внедрения, способов борьбы с комарами (которые уже разработаны в научных лабораториях, но не имеют должной финансовой поддержки, чтобы быть доведенными до стадии практического применения). В то же время сейчас существует достаточно надежный метод противостоять малярии с помощью современных лекарственных препаратов, хотя он постоянно подвергается риску потерять свою действенность под натиском их бессистемного использования населением стран с неразвитым здравоохранением – в точности так, как это описывает на примере антибиотиков автор данной книги. То и дело высказываются опасения, что грядет появление по-настоящему резистентного к существующим лекарствам малярийного плазмодия. По этим причинам вокруг плана Фонда Гейтсов до сих пор ломаются копья, и разные заинтересованные стороны настаивают на аргументах за или против. – Прим. ред.

· #15

Амиши – консервативная религиозная протестантская деноминация, не слишком многочисленная и не считающаяся влиятельной (но ведущая миссионерскую работу), члены которой проживают в основном в США. Для нее характерны крайняя замкнутость и неприятие многих достижений современной цивилизации, проповедование «простого» сельского образа жизни, негативное отношение к образованию, кроме религиозного, и т. д. – Прим. ред.

· #16

Джаггернаут – проявление слепой непреклонной силы, происходит от санскритского слова «Джаганнатха», которое в переводе означает «владыка Вселенной» и является одним из имен Кришны в индуизме. – Прим. науч. ред.

· #17

«Сердце тьмы» – приключенческая повесть английского писателя Джозефа Конрада, действие которой происходит в Центральной Африке. – Прим. пер.

· #18 · #19

Только в США в 1997 году было зарегистрировано 6500 смертей от грибковых заболеваний. Хотя случаи системных грибковых инфекций в основном ограничиваются больными СПИД и людьми с ослабленным иммунитетом, например из-за химиотерапии, можно сказать, что грибные патогены, в частности родов аспрегилл и кандида, уже являются патогенами человека. – Прим. науч. ред.

· #20

Называется так, поскольку цвет шахматных фигур времен Кэрролла был близок к красному. – Прим. ред.

· #21

Пер. Н. Демуровой.

· #22

К бактериям относятся не все одноклеточные организмы, а только так называемые прокариоты («доядерные»), не имеющие окруженного собственной мембраной клеточного ядра, в котором заключены хромосомы. Вместо отдельных хромосомных частиц бактерии содержат нуклеоид – огромную единую кольцевую хромосому, несущую в себе весь геном бактерии. – Прим. ред.

· #23

Вирус – неклеточная форма жизни, «условно живая» структура, состоящая из носителя наследственности – ДНК или РНК (двухцепочечной или одноцепочечной нуклеиновой кислоты) – и белковой оболочки, компактно «упаковывающей» и защищающей генетический материал. В «упакованном» виде вирус представляет собой нечто вроде органического кристалла. Он не имеет средств самостоятельного размножения и использует для производства своих копий живые клетки, в которые внедряется. У сложных вирусов, например бактериофагов, кроме белковой оболочки, на поверхности имеются дополнительные молекулярные структуры, позволяющие прикрепляться к клетке-хозяину и эффективно внедряться в нее. – Прим. ред.

· #24

Особенность коронавирусов – то, что их наследственность базируется на одноцепочечной нуклеиновой кислоте – РНК. Благодаря этому их вирусные частицы очень компактные и легкие, что позволяет им особенно эффективно распространяться воздушно-капельным путем. Название «коронавирус» происходит от того, что внешняя оболочка имеет множество выростов, напоминающих солнечную корону. Эти выросты позволяют коронавирусу закрепляться на поверхности атакуемой клетки. – Прим. ред.

· #1

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· #21

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· #30

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· #31

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· #38

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· #39

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· #40

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Dennis Normile, "Up Close and Personal with SARS," Science 300, no. 5621 (2003): 886–87.

· #63

"The Dog That's Just Dyeing to Be a Tiger: How Chinese Owners Turn Their Pets into Exotic Wildlife in New Craze," Daily Mail Online, June 9, 2010; John Knight, ed., Wildlife in Asia: Cultural Perspectives (New York: Routledge, 2004); S. A. Mainka and J. A. Mills, "Wildlife and Traditional Chinese Medicine: Supply and Demand for Wildlife Species," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 26, no. 2 (1995): 193–200.

· #64

Knight, Wildlife in Asia.

· #65

Lauren Swanson, "1.19850+ Billion Mouths to Feed: Food Linguistics and Cross-Cultural, Cross-'National' Food Consumption Habits in China," British Food Journal 98, no. 6 (1996): 33–44.

· #66

Anthony Kuhn, "A Chinese Imperial Feast a Year in the Eating," NPR, Jan. 9, 2010.

· #67

Eoin Gleeson, "How China Fell in Love with Louis Vuitton," MoneyWeek, June 14, 2007.

· #68

Интервью с Джонатаном Эпштейном, 17 сентября 2009 года; L. M. Looi et al., "Lessons from the Nipah Virus Outbreak in Malaysia," The Malaysian Journal of Pathology 29, no. 2 (2007): 63–67.

· #69

A. Townsend Peterson et al., "Predictable Ecology and Geography of West Nile Virus Transmission in the Central United States," Journal of Vector Ecology 33, no. 2 (2008): 342–52; A. Townsend Peterson et al., "West Nile Virus: A Reemerging Global Pathogen," Emerging Infectious Diseases 7, no. 4 (2001): 611–14.

· #70

Most of these people had "silent" infections; they were not sick. Drexler, Secret Agents, 72.

· #71

A. Marm Kilpatrick, "Globalization, Land Use, and the Invasion of West Nile Virus," Science, Oct. 21, 2011; Valerie J. McKenzie and Nicolas E. Goulet, "Bird Community Composition Linked to Human West Nile Virus Cases Along the Colorado Front Range," EcoHealth, Dec. 2, 2010.

· #72

Richard Ostfeld, "Ecological Drivers of Tickborne Diseases in North America," International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, March 13, 2012.

· #73

"CDC Provides Estimate of Americans Diagnosed with Lyme Disease Each Year," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Aug. 19, 2013; Julie T. Joseph et al., "Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA," Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (May 26, 2011); Laurie Tarkan, "Once Rare, Infection by Tick Bites Spreads," The New York Times, June 20, 2011.

· #74

Felicia Keesing et al., "Impacts of Biodiversity on the Emergence and Transmission of Infectious Diseases," Nature 468 (Dec. 2, 2010): 647–52.

· #75

Beth Mole, "MRSA: Farming Up Trouble," Nature, July 24, 2013.

· #76

Drexler, Secret Agents, 136.

· #77

"Control of Communicable Diseases, Restrictions on African Rodents, Prairie Dogs and Certain Other Animals," Food and Drug Administration, Federal Register, Sept. 8, 2008.

· #78

M. G. Reynolds et al., "A Silent Enzootic of an Orthpoxvirus in Ghana, West Africa: Evidence for Multi-Species Involvement in the Absence of Widespread Human Disease," The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82, no. 4 (April 2010): 746–54.

· #79

Интервью с Марком Слифкой, Бостон, 30 ноября 2011 года.

· #80

Lisa Warnecke et al., "Inoculation of Bats with European Pseudogymnoascus destructans Supports the Novel Pathogen Hypothesis for the Origin of White-nose Syndrome," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109, no. 18 (2012): 6999–7003; "White-Nose Syndrome (WNS)," USGS National Wildlife Health Center, www.nwhc.usgs.gov/disease_information/white-nose_syndrome/.

· #81

Emily Badger, "We've Been Looking at the Spread of Global Pandemics All Wrong," The Atlantic, CityLab, Feb. 25, 2013.

· #82

"Threading the Climate Needle: The Agulhas Current System," National Science Foundation, April 27, 2011.

· #83

C. Razouls et al., "Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Marine Planktonic Copepods," http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en.

· #84

Fran?ois Delaporte, Disease and Civilization: The Cholera in Paris, 1832 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986), 40.

· #85

Walter Benjamin, "Paris – Capital of the Nineteenth Century," Perspecta, 12 (1969).

· #86

N. P. Willis, Prose Works (Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1849).

· #87

Roy Porter, The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity (New York: Norton, 1997), 308–10.

· #88

Штаммы холерного вибриона могли развиться и в других частях света. Имеются исторические свидетельства о более ранних вспышках, очень похожих на холерные. Холероподобная болезнь описывается в древних источниках на санскрите, датируемых 500–400 гг. до н. э., а также в древнегреческих и древнеримских документах. К тому моменту, как Васко да Гама высадился в 1498 году на Малабарском побережье Индии, от болезни, «поражающей внезапным ударом в живот, от которого некоторые умирают через восемь часов», погибло уже около 20 000 человек. О холероподобной болезни в Британии в 1669 году можно прочитать у Томаса Сиденгама, а Редьярд Киплинг повествует о напасти, уничтожавшей в течение суток тех, кто прибывает в Африку, что тоже могло быть холерой. Однако первая глобальная пандемия началась именно в Сундарбане, и, по мнению ученых, развивающиеся там холерные вибрионы обладали особенной трансмиссивностью. См.: Joan L. Aron and Jonathan A. Patz, eds., Ecosystem Change and Public Health: A Global Perspective (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), 328; Colwell, "Global Climate and Infectious Disease."

· #89

Myron Echenberg, Africa in the Time of Cholera: A History of Pandemics from 1817 to the Present (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 7.

· #90

Richard J. Evans, Death in Hamburg: Society and Politics in the Cholera Years (New York: Penguin, 2005), 229.

· #91

Washer, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 153.

· #92

Evans, Death in Hamburg, 229.

· #93

Marc Alexander, "'The Rigid Embrace of the Narrow House': Premature Burial & the Signs of Death," The Hastings Center Report 10, no. 3 (June 1980): 25–31.

· #94

Delaporte, Disease and Civilization, 43.

· #95

Ibid., 27–48; N. P. Willis, "Letter XVIII: Cholera – Universal terror…" and "Letter XVI: the cholera – a masque ball – the gay world – mobs – visit to the hotel dieu," Pencillings by the Way (New York: Morris & Willis, 1844).

· #96

Delaporte, Disease and Civilization, 40, 43.

· #97

Edward P. Richards, Katharine C. Rathbun, and Jay Gold, "The Smallpox Vaccination Campaign of 2003: Why Did It Fail and What Are the Lessons for Bioterrorism Preparedness?" Louisiana Law Review 64 (2004).

· #98

Willis, Prose Works.

· #99

Bank of the Manhattan Company, "Ships and Shipping of Old New York: A Brief Account of the Interesting Phases of the Commerce of New York from the Foundation of the City to the Beginning of the Civil War" (New York, 1915), 39.

· #100

С неудобствами приходилось мириться даже пассажирам первого класса. Каюты были холодными, душными и темными, спальное место представляло собой застеленную мешковиной койку с углублением в центре, чтобы пассажир не свалился во сне во время сильной качки. Stephen Fox, The Ocean Railway: Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Samuel Cunard and the Revolutionary World of the Great Atlantic Steamships (New York: Harper, 2003), 7–14; "On the Water," Maritime Nation, 1800–1850: Enterprise on the Water, Smithsonian National Museum of American History, http://americanhistory.si.edu/onthewater/exhibition/2_3.html.

· #101

Echenberg, Africa in the Time of Cholera, 61.

· #102

J. S. Chambers, The Conquest of Cholera: America's Greatest Scourge (New York: Macmillan, 1938), 298.

· #103

J. T. Carlton, "The Scale and Ecological Consequences of Biological Invasions in the World's Oceans," in Odd Terje Sandlund et al., eds., Invasive Species and Biodiversity Management (Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1999); Mike McCarthy, "The Iron Hull: A Brief History of Iron Shipbuilding," Iron Ships & Steam Shipwrecks: Papers from the First Australian Seminar on the Management of Iron Vessels & Steam Shipwrecks (Fremantle: Western Australian Maritime Museum, 1985).

· #104

Rita R. Colwell et al., "Global Spread of Microorganisms by Ships," Nature 408, no. 6808 (2000): 49.

· #105

Chambers, The Conquest of Cholera, 201; Carol Sheriff, The Artificial River: The Erie Canal and the Paradox of Progress, 1817–1862 (New York: Hill & Wang, 1996), 15–17.

· #106

Steven Solomon, Water: The Epic Struggle for Wealth, Power, and Civilization (New York: Harper, 2010), 289.

· #107

Ashleigh R. Tuite, Christina H. Chan, and David N. Fisman, "Cholera, Canals, and Contagion: Rediscovering Dr Beck's Report," Journal of Public Health Policy 32, no. 3 (Aug. 2011); Maximilian, Prince of Wied, "Early Western Travels, vol. 22: Part I of Maximilian, Prince of Weid's Travels in the Interior of North America, 1832–1834" (Cleveland: A. H. Clark Co., 1906), 393.

· #108

Bank of the Manhattan Company, "Ships and Shipping of Old New York," 43; Solomon, Water, 289.

· #109

В настоящее время на канале Эри осталось только 35 шлюзов. www.eriecanal.org/locks.html. Ronald E. Shaw, Canals for a Nation: The Canal Era in the United States, 1790–1860 (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1990), 44, 47; Sheriff, The Artificial River, 67, 72, 79.

· #110

Chambers, The Conquest of Cholera, 63, 91; Shaw, Canals for a Nation, 47; John W. Percy, "Erie Canal: From Lockport to Buffalo," Buffalo Architecture and History (Buffalo: Western New York Heritage Institute of Canisius College, 1993).

· #111

Percy, "Erie Canal."

· #112

Solomon, Water, 228.

· #113

Chester G. Moore, "Globalization and the Law of Unintended Consequences: Rapid Spread of Disease Vectors via Commerce and Travel," Colorado State University, Fort Collins, ISAC meeting, June 2011; EPA, "Growth of International Trade and Transportation," www.epa.gov/oia/trade/transport.html; David Ozonoff and Lewis Pepper, "Ticket to Ride: Spreading Germs a Mile High," The Lancet 365, no. 9463 (2005): 917.

· #114

"Country Comparison: Airports," CIA, The World Factbook, 2013.

· #115

"Top 10 Biggest Ports in the World in 2011," Marine Insight, Aug. 11, 2011.

· #116

"Multi-modal Mainland Connections," 2013, www.hongkongairport.com.

· #117

Chris Taylor, "The Chinese Plague," The Age, May 4, 2003; Mike Davis, The Monster at Our Door: The Global Threat of Avian Flu (New York: Henry Holt, 2005), 70.

· #118

Nathan Wolfe, The Viral Storm: The Dawn of a New Pandemic Age (New York: Times Books, 2011), 160.

· #119

Christopher R. Braden et al., "Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome," Emerging Infectious Diseases 19, no. 6 (2013): 864.

· #120

"What You Should Know About SARS," The Vancouver Province, March 23, 2003; Wolfe, The Viral Storm, 160; Forum on Microbial Threats, Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004); Davis, The Monster at Our Door, 72–73.

· #121

Grady, "Ebola Cases Could Reach 1.4 Million"; David Kroll, "Nigeria Free of Ebola as Final Surveillance Contacts Are Released," Forbes, Sept. 23, 2014.

· #122

"India's Wealth Triples in a Decade to $3.5 Trillion," The Economic Times (India), Oct. 9, 2010.

· #123

"Medical Tourism in the Superbug Age," The Times of India, April 17, 2011.

· #124

"Medanta the Medicity," www.medanta.org/about_gallery.aspx.

· #125

Amit Sengupta and Samiran Nundy, "The Private Health Sector in India," BMJ 331, no. 7526 (Nov. 19, 2005): 1157–58; George K. Varghese et al., "Bacterial Organisms and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns," The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 58 supp. (December 2010): 23–24; Dawn Sievert et al., "Antimicrobial-Resistant Pathogens Associated with Healthcare-Associated Infections: Summary of Data Reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009–2010," Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 34, no. 1 (Jan. 2013): 1–14.

· #126

Maryn McKenna, "The Enemy Within," Scientific American, April 2011, 46–53; Chand Wattal et al., "Surveillance of Multidrug Resistant Organisms in Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi, India," The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 58 supp. (Dec. 2010): 32–36; Timothy R. Walsh and Mark A. Toleman, "The New Medical Challenge: Why NDM-1? Why Indian?" Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy 9, no. 2 (Feb. 2011): 137–41.

· #127

CDC, "Detection of Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Carrying Metallo-Beta-Lactamase – United States, 2010," June 25, 2010, www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5924a5.htm; Deverick J. Anderson, "Surgical Site Infections," Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 25, no. 1 (2011): 135–53; M. Berrazeg et al., "New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase Around the World: An eReview Using Google Maps," Eurosurveillance 19, no. 20 (2014).

· #128

Интервью с Чандом Ватталом, 9 января 2012 года.

· #129

Richard G. Feachem et al., Sanitation and Disease: Health Aspects of Excreta and Wastewater Management, World Bank Studies in Water Supply and Sanitation 3 (New York: John Wiley, 1983); Uno Winblad, "Towards an Ecological Approach to Sanitation," Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 1997.

· #130

Rose George, The Big Necessity: The Unmentionable World of Human Waste and Why It Matters (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2008), 2.

· #131

Joan H. Geismar, "Where Is Night Soil? Thoughts on an Urban Privy," Historical Archaeology 27, no. 2 (1993): 57–70; Laura Noren, Toilet: Public Restrooms and the Politics of Sharing (New York: NYU Press, 2010); Ewald, Evolution of Infectious Disease, 80.

· #132

Katherine Ashenburg, The Dirt on Clean: An Unsanitized History (New York: North Point Press, 2007), 43; Solomon, Water, 251–53.

· #133

George, The Big Necessity, 2.

· #134

Ashenburg, The Dirt on Clean; Solomon, Water.

· #135

Ashenburg, The Dirt on Clean, 94.

· #136

Solomon, Water, 253.

· #137

Ashenburg, The Dirt on Clean, 95, 100, 107.

· #138

Martin V. Melosi, The Sanitary City: Environmental Services in Urban America from Colonial Times to Present, abridged ed. (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2008), 12.

· #139

Benedetta Allegranzi et al., "Religion and Culture: Potential Undercurrents Influencing Hand Hygiene Promotion in Health Care," American Journal of Infection Control 37, no. 1 (2009): 28–34; Ashenburg, The Dirt on Clean, 59, 75.

· #140

Echenberg, Africa in the Time of Cholera, 8.

· #141

George, The Big Necessity, 8.

· #142

John Duffy, A History of Public Health in New York City 1625–1866 (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1968), 18; Gerard T. Koeppel, Water for Gotham: A History (Princeton: Prince ton University Press, 2000), 12, 21.

· #143

Melosi, The Sanitary City, 115.

· #144

Tyler Anbinder, Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City Neighborhood That Invented Tap Dance, Stole Elections, and Became the World's Most Notorious Slum (New York: Plume, 2001), 74, 86.

· #145

Eric W. Sanderson, Manahatta: A Natural History of New York City (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2009), 215; Duffy, A History of Public Health, 185, 363.

· #146

Duffy, A History of Public Health, 364.

· #147

Asa Greene, A Glance at New York: Embracing the City Government, Theatres, Hotels, Churches, Mobs, Monopolies, Learned Professions, Newspapers, Rogues, Dandies, Fires and Firemen, Water and Other Liquids, &c., &c. (New York: A. Greene, 1837).

· #148

Argonne National Laboratory, "Cleaning Water Through Soil," Nov. 6, 2004, www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/ gen01/gen01688.htm.

· #149

Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 9; Sanderson, Manahatta; 87.

· #150

Greene, A Glance at New York.

· #151

Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 16, 52, 117.

· #152

Интервью с Робертом Матчем, 27 ноября 2012 года; Duffy, A History of Public Health, 211; Nelson Manfred Blake, Water for the Cities: A History of the Urban Water Supply Problem in the United States (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1956), 124; "Old Water Tank Building Gives Way to Trade," The New York Times, July 12, 1914.

· #153

Blake, Water for the Cities, 126.

· #154

Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 64.

· #155

Сведения приводились в гранах на галлон. 1 гран = 64,8 мг; 1 галлон = 3780 г. Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 121, 141.

· #156

J. S. Guthrie et al., "Alcohol and Its Influence on the Survival of Vibrio cholerae," British Journal of Biomedical Science 64, no. 2 (2007): 91–92.

· #157

Peter C. Baldwin, In the Watches of the Night: Life in the Nocturnal City, 1820–1830 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012); Geismar, "Where Is Night Soil?"; Charles E. Rosenberg, The Cholera Years: The United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 112.

· #158

Documents of the Board of Aldermen of the City of New-York, vol. 9, document 18.

· #159

Sanderson, Manahatta, 10, 64, 153; Duffy, A History of Public Health, 25, 91, 379, 407; Feachem, Sanitation and Disease; Anbinder, Five Points, 87.

· #160

Duffy, A History of Public Health, 197.

· #161

Sanderson, Manahatta, 81.

· #162

Dudley Atkins, ed., Reports of Hospital Physicians and Other Documents in Relation to the Epidemic Cholera of 1832 (New York: G. & C. & H. Carvill, 1832); James R. Manley, "Letters addressed to the Board of Health, and to Richard Riker, recorder of the city of New-York: on the subject of his agency in constituting a special medical council," Board of Health publication (New York: Peter van Pelt, 1832).

· #163

Steven Johnson, The Ghost Map: The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic – and How It Changed Science, Cities and the Modern World (New York: Riverhead Books, 2006), 37.

· #164

Greene, A Glance at New York.

· #165

В разведенном водой до пятнадцатиградусной крепости джине холерный вибрион погибал только через 26 часов. J. S. Guthrie et al., "Alcohol and Its Influence on the Survival of Vibrio cholerae," British Journal of Biomedical Science 64, no. 2 (2007): 91–92.

· #166

Mark Kurlansky, The Big Oyster: History on the Half Shell (New York: Random House, 2007); Duffy, A History of Public Health, 226.

· #167

Blake, Water for the Cities, 60.

· #168

"Extract of a letter from New-York, dated July 19, 1832," The Liberator, July 28, 1832; Atkins, Reports of Hospital Physicians.

· #169

Atkins, Reports of Hospital Physicians.

· #170

The Cholera Bulletin, Conducted by an Association of Physicians, vol. 1, nos. 1–24, 1832 (New York: Arno Press, 1972), 6.

· #171

Philip Hone, The Diary of Philip Hone, 1828–1851 (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1910); John N. Ingham, Biographical Dictionary of American Business Leaders, vol. 1 (Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing, 1983); Atkins, Reports of Hospital Physicians.

· #172

Atkins, Reports of Hospital Physicians.

· #173

Letter from Cornelia Laura Adams Tomlinson to Maria Annis Dayton and Cornelia Laura Tomlinson Weed, June 22, 1832, in "Genealogical Story (Dayton and Tomlinson)," told by Laura Dayton Fessenden (Cooperstown, NY: Crist, Scott & Parshall, 1902).

· #174

Autobiography of N. T. Hubbard: With Personal Reminiscences of New York City from 1798 to 1875 (New York: J. F. Trow & Son, 1875).

· #175

Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 32.

· #176

Hone, The Diary of Philip Hone.

· #177

Chris Swann, A Survey of Residential Nutrient Behaviors in the Chesapeake Bay (Ellicott City, MD: Chesapeake Research Consortium, Center for Watershed Protection, 1999).

· #178

Traci Watson, "Dog Waste Poses Threat to Water," USA Today, June 6, 2002.

· #179

Robert M. Bowers et al., "Sources of Bacteria in Outdoor Air Across Cities in the Midwestern United States," Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77, no. 18 (2011): 6350–56.

· #180

Dana M. Woodhall, Mark L. Eberhard, and Monica E. Parise, "Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Toxocariasis," The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 90, no. 5 (2014): 810–13.

· #181

P. S. Craig et al., "An Epidemiological and Ecological Study of Human Alveolar Echinococcosis Transmission in South Gansu, China," Acta Tropica 77, no. 2 (2000): 167–77.

· #182

Jillian P. Fry et al., "Investigating the Role of State and Local Health Departments in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production Sites," PLoS ONE 8, no. 1 (2013): e54720.

· #183

JoAnn Burkholder et al., "Impacts of Waste from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations on Water Quality," Environmental Health Perspectives 115, no. 2 (2007): 308.

· #184

Robbin Marks, "Cesspools of Shame: How Factory Farm Lagoons and Sprayfields Threaten Environmental and Public Health," Natural Resources Defense Council and the Clean Water Network, July 2001; Burkholder, "Impacts of Waste from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations"; Wendee Nicole, "CAFOs and Environmental Justice: The Case of North Carolina," Environmental Health Perspectives 121, no. 6 (2013): a182–89.

· #185

Lee Bergquist and Kevin Crowe, "Manure Spills in 2013 the Highest in Seven Years Statewide," Milwaukee Wisconsin Journal Sentinel, Dec. 5, 2013; Peter T. Kilborn, "Hurricane Reveals Flaws in Farm Law," The New York Times, Oct. 17, 1999.

· #186

Xiuping Jiang, Jennie Morgan, and Michael P. Doyle, "Fate of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in Manure-Amended Soil," Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68, no. 5 (2002): 2605–609; Margo Chase-Topping et al., "Super-Shedding and the Link Between Human Infection and Livestock Carriage of Escherichia coli O157," Nature Reviews Microbiology 6, no. 12 (2008): 904–12; CDC, "Escherichia coli O157: H7, General Information – NCZVED," Jan. 6, 2011; J. A. Cotruvo et al., "Waterborne Zoonoses: Identification, Causes, and Control," WHO, 2004, 140.

· #187

Способность NDM-1 внедряться в тот или иной вид бактерий максимальна при комнатной температуре, а не при температуре тела. Возможно, именно поэтому его уже находили в экзогенных штаммах холерного вибриона и Shigella boydii, также вызывающей острую дизентерию. T. R. Walsh et al., "Dissemination of NDM-1 Positive Bacteria in the New Delhi Environment and Its Implications for Human Health: An Environmental Point Prevalence Study," The Lancet Infectious Diseases 11, no. 5 (2011): 355–62.

· #188

Drexler, Secret Agents, 146; McKenna, Superbug, 60–63; S. Tsubakishita et al., "Origin and Molecular Evolution of the Determinant of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococci," Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 54, no. 10 (2010): 4352–59.

· #189

Maryn McKenna, "E. Coli: Some Answers, Many Questions Still," Wired.com, June 22, 2011; Yonatan H. Grad et al., "Comparative Genomics of Recent Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O104: H4: Short-Term Evolution of an Emerging Pathogen," mBio 4, no. 1 (2013): e00452–12.

· #190

Ross Anderson, "Sprouts and Bacteria: It's the Growing Conditions," Food Safety News, June 6, 2011.

· #191

G. Gault et al., "Outbreak of Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome and Bloody Diarrhoea Due to Escherichia coli O104: H4, South-West France, June 2011," Eurosurveillance 16, no. 26 (2011).

· #192

McKenna, "E. Coli: Some Answers; "'A Totally New Disease Pattern': Doctors Shaken by Outbreak's Neurological Devastation," Spiegel Online, June 9, 2011; Gault, "Outbreak of Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome."

· #193

Ralf P. Vonberg et al., "Duration of Fecal Shedding of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O104: H4 in Patients Infected During the 2011 Outbreak in Germany: A Multicenter Study," Clinical Infectious Diseases 56 (2013).

· #194

Haiti Grassroots Watch, "Behind the Cholera Epidemic – Excreta," December 21, 2010.

· #195

George, The Big Necessity, 89, 99.

· #196

Solomon, Water, 265.

· #197

Интервью с Брайаном Конканноном, 23 июля 2013 года.

· #198

Haiti Grassroots Watch, "Behind the Cholera Epidemic."

· #199

Associated Press interview, "UN Envoy Farmer Says Haiti Cholera Outbreak Is Now World's Worst," Oct. 18, 2011.

· #200

Walsh, "Dissemination of NDM-1 Positive Bacteria."

· #201

В январе 2011 года у больного в Гонконге обнаружился штамм E. coli с NDM-1. Поскольку ранее в больницах он не лежал, специалисты предполагают, что заразиться он мог от загрязненной экскрементами воды или почвы. В мае 2011 года NDM-1 был выявлен у пациента в Канаде. Учитывая, что восьмидесятишестилетний мужчина не выезжал за пределы западной части Онтарио по меньшей мере десять лет, для него источником инфекции тоже могла послужить загрязненная окружающая среда. McKenna, "The Enemy Within"; J. V. Kus et al., "New Delhi Metallo-ss-lactamase-1: Local Acquisition in Ontario, Canada, and Challenges in Detection," Canadian Medical Association Journal 183, no. 11 (Aug. 9, 2011): 1257–61.

· #202

Хотя переносчики и не имеют видимых признаков болезни, они все равно могут, сами того не ведая, способствовать распространению, выделяя с испражнениями до 500 млн холерных вибрионов в день. (Из расчета 1 млн холерных вибрионов на грамм фекалий, если в среднем человек производит 500 г фекалий в день.) Feachem, Sanitation and Disease. C. T. Code?o, "Endemic and Epidemic Dynamics of Cholera: The Role of the Aquatic Reservoir," BMC Infectious Diseases 1, no. 1 (2001); Atkins, Reports of Hospital Physicians.

· #203

Иммунитет к холере вырабатывается надолго, однако механизмы его возникновения пока не установлены. Eric J. Nelson et al., "Cholera Transmission: The Host, Pathogen and Bacteriophage Dynamic," Nature Reviews Microbiology 7, no. 10 (2009): 693–702.

· #204

Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 35.

· #205

James D. Oliver, "The Viable but Nonculturable State in Bacteria," The Journal of Microbiology 43, no. 1 (2005): 93–100.

· #206

Anbinder, Five Points, 14–27; Ashenburg, The Dirt on Clean, 178; Richard Plunz, A History of Housing in New York City (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990).

· #207

Simon Szreter, "Economic Growth, Disruption, Deprivation, Disease, and Death: On the Importance of the Politics of Public Health for Development," Population and Development Review 23 (1997): 693–728.

· #208

John Reader, Potato: A History of the Propitious Esculent (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009).

· #209

Ian Steadman, "Mystery Irish Potato Famine Pathogen Identified 170 Years Later," Wired UK, May 21, 2013.

· #210

Reader, Potato; Everett M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 5th ed. (New York: Free Press, 2003), 452; W. C. Paddock, "Our Last Chance to Win the War on Hunger," Advances in Plant Pathology 8 (1992), 197–222.

· #211

Duffy, A History of Public Health, 273.

· #212

Cormac ?. Gr?da and Kevin H. O'Rourke, "Migration as Disaster Relief: Lessons from the Great Irish Famine," European Review of Economic History 1, no. 1 (1997): 3–25.

· #213

Jacob A. Riis, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, ed. David Leviatin (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996 [1890]), 67; Anbinder, Five Points, 74.

· #214

Anbinder, Five Points, 81.

· #215

Plunz, A History of Housing in New York City.

· #216

Anbinder, Five Points, 74–77.

· #217

Riis, How the Other Half Lives, 65.

· #218

Anbinder, Five Points, 14–27, 69, 71, 74–79, 175, 306; Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 34.

· #219

Davis, The Monster at Our Door, 154.

· #220

Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 287.

· #221

Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 104, 106, 113–14, 121, 145; Anbinder, Five Points, 119.

· #222

Michael R. Haines, "The Urban Mortality Transition in the United States, 1800–1940," National Bureau of Economic Research Historical Paper no. 134, July 2001; Michael Haines, "Health, Height, Nutrition and Mortality: Evidence on the 'Antebellum Puzzle' from Union Army Recruits for New York State and the United States," in John Komlos and J?rg Baten, eds., The Biological Standard of Living in Comparative Perspective (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1998); Robert Woods, "Urban-Rural Mortality Differentials: An Unresolved Debate," Population and Development Review 29, no. 1 (2003): 29–46.

· #223

Woods, "Urban-Rural Mortality Differentials."

· #224

Duffy, A History of Public Health, 291.

· #225

Adam Gopnik, "When Buildings Go Up, the City's Distant Past Has a Way of Resurfacing," The New Yorker, Feb. 4, 2002; Michael O. Allen, "5 Points Had Good Points," Daily News, Feb. 22, 1998.

· #226

G. T. Kingsley, "Housing, Health, and the Neighborhood Context," American Journal of Preventive Medicine 4, supp. 3 (April 2003): 6–7.

· #227

Davis, The Monster at Our Door, 154.

· #228

Nature Conservancy, "Global Impact of Urbanization Threatening World's Biodiversity and Natural Resources," ScienceDaily, June 2008.

· #229

Davis, The Monster at Our Door, 152.

· #230

Danielle Nierenberg, "Factory Farming in the Developing World," World Watch magazine 16, no. 3 (May/June 2003).

· #231

Xavier Pourrut et al., "The Natural History of Ebola Virus in Africa," Microbes and Infection 7, no. 7 (2005): 1005–14.

· #232

E. M., Leroy, J. P. Gonzalez, and S. Baize, "Ebola and Marburg Haemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Major Scientific Advances, but a Relatively Minor Public Health Threat for Africa," Clinical Microbiology and Infection 17, no. 7 (2011): 964–76.

· #233

Todd C. Frankel, "It Was Already the Worst Ebola Outbreak in History. Now It's Moving into Africa's Cities," The Washington Post, Aug. 30, 2014; "Ebola Virus Reaches Guinea's Capital Conakry," Al Jazeera, March 28, 2014; "Seven Die in Monrovia Ebola Outbreak," BBC News, June 17, 2014; "Sierra Leone Capital Now in Grip of Ebola," Al Jazeera, Aug. 6, 2014.

· #234

При этом скорость распространения в столице Сьерра-Леоне – по неизвестным причинам – не изменилась. S. Towers, O. Patterson-Lomba, and Chavez C. Castillo, "Temporal Variations in the Effective Reproduction Number of the 2014 West Africa Ebola Outbreak," PLoS Currents Outbreaks, Sept. 18, 2014.

· #235

Интервью с Джеймсом Ллойдом-Смитом, 30 ноября 2011 года.

· #236

Frankel, "It Was Already the Worst Ebola Outbreak."

· #237

Barry S. Hewlett and Bonnie L. Hewlett, Ebola, Culture and Politics: The Anthropology of an Emerging Disease (Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2008), 55.

· #238

Paul W. Ewald, Plague Time: How Stealth Infections Cause Cancers, Heart Disease, and Other Deadly Ailments (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000), 25.

· #239

"Pathogen Safety Data Sheet: Infectious Substances: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex," Public Health Agency of Canada, Oct. 6, 2014; Michael Z. David and Robert S. Daum, "Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Epidemiology and Clinical Consequences of an Emerging Epidemic," Clinical Microbiology Reviews 23, no. 3 (2010): 616–87.

· #240

Lise Wilkinson and A. P. Waterson, "The Development of the Virus Concept as Reflected in Corpora of Studies on Individual Pathogens: 2. The Agent of Fowl Plague – A Model Virus?" Medical History 19 (1975): 52–72; Sander Herfst et al., "Airborne Transmission of Influenza A/H5N1 Virus Between Ferrets," Science 336, no. 6088 (2012): 1534–41; Dennis J. Alexander, "An Overview of the Epidemiology of Avian Influenza," Vaccine 25, no. 30 (2007): 5637–44.

· #241

Yohei Watanabe, Madiha S. Ibrahim, and Kazuyoshi Ikuta, "Evolution and Control of H5N1," EMBO Reports 14, no. 2 (2013): 117–22.

· #242

Les Sims and Clare Narrod, Understanding Avian Influenza: A Review of the Emergence, Spread, Control, Prevention and Effects of Asian-Lineage H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Viruses (Rome: FAO, 2007).

· #243

James Truscott et al., "Control of a Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Outbreak in the GB Poultry Flock," Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274 (2007): 2287–95.

· #244

M. S. Beato and I. Capua, "Transboundary Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Through Poultry Commodities and Wild Birds: A Review," Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) 30, no. 1 (April 2011): 51–61.

· #245

Shefali Sharma et al., eds., Fair or Fowl? Industrialization of Poultry Production in China, Global Meat Complex (Minneapolis: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, February 2014).

· #246

S. P. Cobb, "The Spread of Pathogens Through Trade in Poultry Meat: Overview and Recent Developments," Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) 30, no. 1 (April 2011): 149–64.

· #247

Truscott, "Control of a Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Outbreak."

· #248

Alexander, "An Overview of the Epidemiology of Avian Influenza."

· #249

Cobb, "The Spread of Pathogens Through Trade in Poultry Meat."

· #250

Beato and Capua, "Transboundary Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza"; интервью с Маликом Пейрисом, 17 января 2012 года.

· #251

Debby Van Riel et al., "H5N1 Virus Attachment to Lower Respiratory Tract," Science 312, no. 5772 (2006): 399.

· #252

Интервью с Маликом Пейрисом.

· #253

Beato and Capua. "Transboundary Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza"; интервью с Маликом Пейрисом.

· #254

A. Marm Kilpatrick et al., "Predicting the Global Spread of H5N1 Avian Influenza," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103, no. 51 (2006): 19368–73.

· #255

Как предполагают ученые, происходит это потому, что H5N1 еще не способен прочно связываться с легкодоступными клетками наших верхних дыхательных путей. (Он связывается с клетками нижних дыхательных путей, в том числе легких, поэтому болезнь сопровождается такими мучениями.) Watanabe, Ibrahim, and Ikuta, "Evolution and Control of H5N1"; World Health Organization, "Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases for Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Reported to WHO, 2003–2014," July 27, 2014.

· #256

Sims and Narrod, Understanding Avian Influenza.

· #257

Watanabe, Ibrahim, and Ikuta, "Evolution and Control of H5N1."

· #258

Kevin Drew, "China Says Man Dies from Bird Flu," The New York Times, Dec. 31, 2011.

· #259

Davis, The Monster at Our Door, 181.

· #260

Donald G. McNeil, "A Flu Epidemic That Threatens Birds, Not Humans," The New York Times, May 4, 2015.

· #261

Wenjun Ma, Robert E. Kahn, and Juergen A. Richt, "The Pig as a Mixing Vessel for Influenza Viruses: Human and Veterinary Implications," Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine 3, no. 1 (2009): 158.

· #262

Davis, The Monster at Our Door, 17.

· #263

Mindi Schneider, "Feeding China's Pigs: Implications for the Environment, China's Smallholder Farmers and Food Security," Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, May 2011.

· #264

S. McOrist, K. Khampee, and A. Guo, "Modern Pig Farming in the People's Republic of China: Growth and Veterinary Challenges," Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) 30, no. 3 (2011): 961–68.

· #265

Qiyun Zhu et al., "A Naturally Occurring Deletion in Its NS Gene Contributes to the Attenuation of an H5N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Chickens," Journal of Virology 82, no. 1 (2008): 220–28.

· #266

Michael Osterholm, "This Year, It Seems, It's 'Risk On' with Swine Flu," StarTribune (Minneapolis), Aug. 26, 2012.

· #267

Department of Health and Human Services, "H3N2v," flu.gov/about_the_flu/h3n2v.

· #268

Maura Lerner and Curt Brown, "Will New Flu Strain Close the Swine Barn at Minnesota State Fair?" StarTribune, Aug. 21, 2012.

· #269

Di Liu et al., "Origin and Diversity of Novel Avian Influenza A H7N9 Viruses Causing Human Infection: Phylogenetic, Structural, and Coalescent Analyses," The Lancet 381, no. 9881 (2013): 1926–32; Rongbao Gao et al., "Human Infection with a Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus," The New England Journal of Medicine 368, no. 20 (2013): 1888–97; Yu Chen et al., "Human Infections with the Emerging Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus from Wet Market Poultry: Clinical Analysis and Characterisation of Viral Genome," The Lancet 381, no. 9881 (2013): 1916–25; Hongjie Yu et al., "Effect of Closure of Live Poultry Markets on Poultry-to-Person Transmission of Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus: An Ecological Study," The Lancet 383, no. 9916 (2014): 541–48; Tokiko Watanabe et al., "Pandemic Potential of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Viruses," Trends in Microbiology 22, no. 11 (2014): 623–31.

· #270

Hewlett and Hewlett, Ebola, Culture, and Politics, 44–45.

· #271

Ernst Fehr, Urs Fischbacher, and Simon G?chter, "Strong Reciprocity, Human Cooperation, and the Enforcement of Social Norms," Human Nature 13, no. 1 (2002): 1–25; Eric Michael Johnson, "Punishing Cheaters Promotes the Evolution of Cooperation," The Primate Diaries (Scientific American blog), Aug. 16, 2012.

· #272

Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 80; Beatrice G. Reubens, "Burr, Hamilton and the Manhattan Company: Part I: Gaining the Charter," Political Science Quarterly 72, no. 4 (1957): 578–607; Solomon, Water, 254–55; Fairmount Water Works Interpretive Center, fairmountwaterworks.org.

· #273

Blake, Water for the Cities, 48, 143.

· #274

David O. Stewart, "The Perils of Nonpartisanship: The Case of Aaron Burr," The Huffington Post, Sept. 14, 2011.

· #275

Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 36.

· #276

Reubens, "Burr, Hamilton and the Manhattan Company: Part I."

· #277

Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 82–83.

· #278

Blake, Water for the Cities, 73.

· #279

Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 87.

· #280

Beatrice G. Reubens, "Burr, Hamilton and the Manhattan Company: Part II: Launching a Bank," Political Science Quarterly 73, no. 1 (1958): 100–125.

· #281

Blake, Water for the Cities, 60.

· #282

Reubens, "Burr, Hamilton and the Manhattan Company: Part II."

· #283

Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 87.

· #284

Blake, Water for the Cities, 106.

· #285

Reubens, "Burr, Hamilton and the Manhattan Company: Part II."

· #286

Subhabrata Bobby Banerjee, "Corporate Social Responsibility: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly," Critical Sociology 34, no. 1 (2008): 51–79.

· #287

Blake, Water for the Cities, 102.

· #288

Пересчет покупательной способности доллара 1800 года в нынешнюю проводился с помощью «Исторического конвертера» ("Historical Currency Conversions"), http://futureboy.us/fsp/dollar.fsp?quantity =9000&currency=dollars&fromYear=1800; Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 100.

· #289

Reubens, "Burr, Hamilton and the Manhattan Company: Part I."

· #290

Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 99.

· #291

Reubens, "Burr, Hamilton and the Manhattan Company: Part I."

· #292

"The History of JPMorgan Chase & Co.," www.jpmorganchase.com/corporate/About-JPMC/jpmorgan-history.

· #293

Blake, Water for the Cities, 68.

· #294

Melosi, The Sanitary City, 16.

· #295

Blake, Water for the Cities, 77.

· #296

Howard Markel, When Germs Travel: Six Major Epidemics That Have Invaded America Since 1900 and the Fears They Have Unleashed (New York: Pantheon, 2004), 51.

· #297

Frank M. Snowden, Naples in the Time of Cholera, 1884–1911 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 80.

· #298

Ibid., 80–81.

· #299

Delaporte, Disease and Civilization, 194.

· #300

Duffy, A History of Public Health, 119.

· #301

Ibid., 134.

· #302

Chambers, The Conquest of Cholera, 105.

· #303

Erwin H. Ackerknecht, "Anticontagionism Between 1821 and 1867," International Journal of Epidemiology 38, no. 1 (2009): 7–21.

· #304

Delaporte, Disease and Civilization, 140.

· #305

Ackerknecht, "Anticontagionism Between 1821 and 1867."

· #306

Manley, "Letters addressed to the Board of Health."

· #307

Эти два подхода к причинам возникновения болезней назывались инфекционным и контагиозным («заразительным»). Инфекцией, от латинского inficere («окрашивать»), считалась болезнь, распространяющаяся в зловонном воздухе и пропитывающая организм, как пропитывали ткань недавно разработанные и крайне вонючие химические красители. Более раннее понятие «заражение» относилось к болезням, передающимся от человека к человеку, как семя передается от растения к растению. Термин происходит от латинского «контактировать с грязью». Delaporte, Disease and Civilization, 182; Snowden, Naples in the Time of Cholera, 68.

· #308

Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 41.

· #309

Duffy, A History of Public Health, 161, 330–31.

· #310

Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 104; Echenberg, Africa in the Time of Cholera, 76; Duffy, A History of Public Health, 166.

· #311

Tuite, Chan, and Fisman, "Cholera, Canals, and Contagion."

· #312

Ibid.

· #313

Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, vol. 1 (Albany, 1833).

· #314

Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 98; Delaporte, Disease and Civilization, 111.

· #315

Percy, "Erie Canal."

· #316

Chambers, The Conquest of Cholera, 39.

· #317

Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 20, 26.

· #318

The Cholera Bulletin, vol. 1, nos. 2 and 3, 1832.

· #319

Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 25.

· #320

Snowden, Naples in the Time of Cholera, 197–98, 301–309, 316–57.

· #321

Davis, The Monster at Our Door, 69–70.

· #322

Richard Wenzel, "International Perspectives on Infection Control in Healthcare Institutions," International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, March 12, 2012.

· #323

Davis, The Monster at Our Door, 69–75.

· #324

Juan O. Tamayo, "Cuba Stays Silent About Deadly Cholera Outbreak," The Miami Herald, Dec. 8, 2012.

· #325

George, The Big Necessity, 213.

· #326

Jennifer Yang, "How Medical Sleuths Stopped a Deadly New SARS-like Virus in Its Tracks," Toronto Star, Oct. 21, 2012.

· #327

Tom Clark, "Drug Resistant Superbug Threatens UK Hospitals," Channel 4 News, Oct. 28, 2010.

· #328

Интервью с Тимоти Уолшем, 21 декабря 2011 года.

· #329

www.globalpolicy.org/component/ content/article/221/47211.html.

· #330

Patricia Cohen, "Oxfam Study Finds Richest 1 % Is Likely to Control Half of Global Wealth by 2016," The New York Times, Jan. 19, 2015.

· #331

Alexander Fleming, "Penicillin," Nobel lecture, Dec. 11, 1945, www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/ laureates/1945/fleming-lecture.pdf.

· #332

Spellberg, "Antimicrobial Resistance."

· #333

Center for Veterinary Medicine, "Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals," FDA, Sept. 2014.

· #334

Walsh and Toleman, "The New Medical Challenge."

· #335

Clark, "Drug Resistant Superbug Threatens UK Hospitals"; Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership (GARP) – India Working Group, "Rationalizing Antibiotic Use to Limit Antibiotic Resistance in India," The Indian Journal of Medical Research (Sept. 2011): 281–94.

· #336

D. M. Livermore, "Has the Era of Untreatable Infections Arrived?" The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 64, supp. 1 (2009): i29– i36; T. R. Walsh, "Emerging Carbapenemases: A Global Perspective," International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 36 supp. 3 (2010): s8 – s14.

· #337

Washer, Emerging Infectious Diseases; David and Daum, "Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus"; McKenna, Superbug, 160.

· #338

Drexler, Secret Agents, 152–54.

· #339

Sara Reardon, "FDA Institutes Voluntary Rules on Farm Antibiotics," Nature News, Dec. 11, 2013.

· #340

McKenna, Superbug, 166.

· #341

Sara Reardon, "White House Takes Aim at Antibiotic Resistance," Nature News, Sept. 18, 2014.

· #342

Livermore, "Has the Era of Untreatable Infections Arrived?"

· #343

Michelle Bahrain et al., "Five Cases of Bacterial Endocarditis After Furunculosis and the Ongoing Saga of Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections," Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 38, no. 8 (2006): 702–707.

· #344

G. R. Nimmo, "USA300 Abroad: Global Spread of a Virulent Strain of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus," Clinical Microbiology and Infection 18, no. 8 (2012): 725–34.

· #345

David and Daum, "Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus."

· #346

Bahrain, "Five Cases of Bacterial Endocarditis."

· #347

Livermore, "Has the Era of Untreatable Infections Arrived?"

· #348

Pollack, "Looking for a Superbug Killer."

· #349

McKenna, "The Enemy Within."

· #350

Peter Utting et al., "UN-Business Partnerships: Whose Agenda Counts?" Transnational Associations, Dec. 8, 2000, 18.

· #351

J. Patrick Vaughan et al., "WHO and the Effects of Extrabudgetary Funds: Is the Organization Donor Driven?" Health Policy and Planning 11, no. 3 (1996); World Health Organization, "Programme Budget 2014–2015," www.who.int, May 24, 2013.

· #352

Sheri Fink, "WHO Leader Describes the Agency's Ebola Operations," The New York Times, Sept. 4, 2014.

· #353

Stuckler et al., "WHO's Bud getary Allocations and Burden of Disease: A Comparative Analysis," The Lancet 372 (2008): 9649.

· #354

Buse et al., "Public-Private Health Partnerships: A Strategy for WHO," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79, no. 8 (2001): 748–54.

· #355

Maria Cheng and Raphael Satter, "Emails Show the World Health Organization Intentionally Delayed Calling Ebola a Public Health Emergency," Associated Press, March 20, 2015; Sarah Boseley, "World Health Organization Admits Botching Response to Ebola Outbreak," The Guardian, Oct. 17, 2014.

· #356

Andrew Bowman, "The Flip Side to Bill Gates' Charity Billions," New Internationalist, April 2012.

· #357

Sonia Shah, "Guerrilla War on Malaria," Le Monde Diplomatique, April 2011.

· #358

У ряда специалистов вызывают вопросы инвестиции Фонда Гейтсов в фармацевтические компании и производство полуфабрикатов. David Stuckler, Sanjay Basu, and Martin McKee, "Global Health Philanthropy and Institutional Relationships: How Should Conflicts of Interest be Addressed?" PLoS Medicine 8, no. 4 (2011): e1001020.

· #359

Dan Coughlin, "WikiLeaks Haiti: US Cables Paint Portrait of Brutal, Ineffectual and Polluting UN Force," The Nation, Oct. 6, 2011.

· #360

Kathie Klarreich, "Will the United Nations' Legacy in Haiti Be All About Scandal?" The Christian Science Monitor, June 13, 2012.

· #361

"Fearful Crowds Wreck Clinic as Panic over Cholera Grows," The Times (London), Oct. 29, 2010.

· #362

"Oxfam Workers Flee Riot-Torn Cholera City as Disease Spreads Across Border," The Times (London), Nov. 17, 2010.

· #363

Samuel Cohn, "Pandemics: Waves of Disease, Waves of Hate from the Plague of Athens to AIDS," Historical Research 85, no. 230 (2012): 535–55.

· #364

Susan Sontag, Illness as Metaphor and AIDS and Its Metaphors (New York: Macmillan, 2001), 40–41.

· #365

Cohn, "Pandemics."

· #366

United Nations Senior Advisory Group, "Report of the Senior Advisory Group on Rates of Reimbursement to Troop-Contributing Countries and Other Related Issues," Oct. 11, 2012.

· #367

Zachary K. Rothschild et al., "A Dual-Motive Model of Scapegoating: Displacing Blame to Reduce Guilt or Increase Control," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102, no. 6 (2012): 1148.

· #368

Daniel Sullivan et al., "An Existential Function of Enemyship: Evidence That People Attribute Influence to Personal and Political Enemies to Compensate for Threats to Control," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98, no. 3 (2010): 434–49.

· #369

Rothschild, "A Dual-Motive Model of Scapegoating."

· #370

Neel L. Burton, Hide and Seek: The Psychology of Self-Deception (Oxford: Acheron Press, 2012).

· #371

Attila P?k, "Atonement and Sacrifice: Scapegoats in Modern Eastern and Central Europe," East European Quarterly 32, no. 4 (1998): 531.

· #372

Snowden, Naples in the Time of Cholera, 151.

· #373

Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 33.

· #374

William J. Callahan, Church, Politics, and Society in Spain, 1750–1874 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984).

· #375

Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 135.

· #376

Chambers, The Conquest of Cholera, 41.

· #377

Percy, "Erie Canal."

· #378

Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 62–63.

· #379

William Watson, "The Sisters of Charity, the 1832 Cholera Epidemic in Philadelphia, and Duffy's Cut," U. S. Catholic Historian 27, no. 4 (Fall 2009): 1–16; Dan Barry, "With Shovels and Science, a Grim Story Is Told," The New York Times, March 24, 2013.

· #380

Barry, "With Shovels and Science."

· #381

W. Omar, "The Mecca Pilgrimage," Postgraduate Medical Journal 28, no. 319 (1952): 269.

· #382

M. C. Low, "Empire and the Hajj: Pilgrims, Plagues, and Pan-Islam Under British Surveillance, 1865–1908," International Journal of Middle East Studies 40, no. 2 (2008): 1–22.

· #383

F. E. Peters, The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994).

· #384

Valeska Huber, "The Unification of the Globe by Disease? The International Sanitary Conferences on Cholera, 1851–1894," The Historical Journal 49, no. 02 (2006): 453.

· #385

Low, "Empire and the Hajj."

· #386

Echenberg, Africa in the Time of Cholera, 37.

· #387

Harriet Moore, "Contagion from Abroad: U. S. Press Framing of Immigrants and Epidemics, 1891 to 1893" (master's thesis, Georgia State University, Department of Communications, 2008), 1–113.

· #388

Howard Markel, Quarantine! East European Jewish Immigrants and the New York City Epidemics of 1892 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997), 111–19.

· #389

Cohn, "Pandemics"; Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 67.

· #390

"Death and Disbelievers," The Economist, Aug. 2, 2014; "Ebola: Guineans Riot in Nzerekore over Disinfectant," BBC News Africa, Aug. 29, 2014; Abby Phillip, "Eight Dead in Attack on Ebola Team in Guinea," The Washington Post, Sept. 28, 2014; Terrence McCoy, "Why the Brutal Murder of Several Ebola Workers May Hint at More Violence to Come," The Washington Post, Sept. 19, 2014.

· #391

Laurie Garrett, The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World out of Balance (New York: Macmillan, 1994), 352.

· #392

Sonia Shah, The Body Hunters: Testing New Drugs on the World's Poorest Patients (New York: New Press, 2012), 104.

· #393

Pride Chigwedere et al., "Estimating the Lost Benefits of Antiretroviral Drug Use in South Africa," JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 49, no. 4 (2008): 410–15.

· #394

Gregory M. Herek and Eric K. Glunt, "An Epidemic of Stigma: Public Reactions to AIDS," American Psychologist 43, no. 11 (1988): 886.

· #395

Gregory M. Herek, "AIDS and Stigma," American Behavioral Scientist 42, no. 7 (1999): 1106–16; Mirko D. Grmek, History of AIDS: Emergence and Origin of a Modern Pandemic (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990); Paul Farmer, "Social Inequalities and Emerging Infectious Diseases," Emerging Infectious Diseases 2, no. 4 (1996): 259.

· #396

Edwidge Danticat, "Don't Let New AIDS Study Scapegoat Haitians," The Progressive, Nov. 7, 2007.

· #397

Washer, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 131–32.

· #398

Richard Preston, "West Nile Mystery," The New Yorker, Oct. 18, 1999.

· #399

Ibid.

· #400

"Chinese Refugees Face SARS Discrimination," CBC News, April 5, 2003; "China Syndrome," The Economist, April 10, 2003.

· #401

"Chinese Refugees Face SARS Discrimination"; "China Syndrome."

· #402

Chinese Canadian National Council – National Office, "Yellow Peril Revisited: Impact of SARS on the Chinese and Southeast Asian Communities," June 2004.

· #403

Robert Samuels Morello, "At Rock Creek Park, Harvesting Deer and Hard Feelings," The Washington Post, March 30, 2013.

· #404

"Are Deer the Culprit in Lyme Disease?" The New York Times, July 29, 2009.

· #405

Pam Belluck, "Tick-Borne Illnesses Have Nantucket Considering Some Deer-Based Solutions," The New York Times, Sept. 6, 2009.

· #406

Ernesto Londo, "Egypt's Garbage Crisis Bedevils Morsi," The Washington Post, Aug. 27, 2012; "Swine Flu Pig Cull Destroys Way of Life for City's Coptic Rubbish Collectors," The Times (London), June 6, 2009; "For Egypt's Christians, Pig Cull Has Lasting Effects," The Christian Science Monitor, Sept. 3, 2009; "New Film Reveals the Story of Egyptian Trash Collectors," Waste & Recycling News, Jan. 23, 2012; "Copts Between the Rock of Islamism and a Hard Place," The Times (London), Nov. 14, 2009; Michael Slackman, "Belatedly, Egypt Spots Flaws in Wiping Out Pigs," The New York Times, Sept. 19, 2009; "President Under Pressure to Solve Cairo's Trash Problems," The New Zealand Herald, Sept. 3, 2012.

· #407

Elisha P. Renne, The Politics of Polio in Northern Nigeria (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010), 11, 40.

· #408

Declan Walsh, "Taliban Block Vaccinations in Pakistan," The New York Times, June 18, 2012.

· #409

Y. Paul and A. Dawson, "Some Ethical Issues Arising From Polio Eradication Programmes in India," Bioethics 19, no. 4 (2005): 393–406; Robert Fortner, "Polio in Retreat: New Cases Nearly Eliminated Where Virus Once Flourished," Scientific American, Oct. 28, 2010.

· #410

Declan Walsh, "Polio Crisis Deepens in Pakistan, With New Cases and Killings," The New York Times, Nov. 26, 2014.

· #411

Paul Greenough, "Intimidation, Coercion and Resistance in the Final Stages of the South Asian Smallpox Eradication Campaign, 1973–1975," Social Science & Medicine 41, no. 5 (1995): 633–45.

· #412

Michael Willrich, Pox: An American History (New York: Penguin Press, 2011), 118.

· #413

"How the CIA's Fake Vaccination Campaign Endangers Us All," Scientific American, May 3, 2013.

· #414

"Congo Republic Declares Polio Emergency," The New York Times, Nov. 9, 2010, 1–3.

· #415

WHO Global Alert and Response, "China: WHO Confirmation," Sept. 1, 2011, www.who.int/csr/don/2011_09_01 /en/index.html; "WHO: Pakistan Polio Strain in Syria," Radio Free Europe, Nov. 12, 2013.

· #416

Donald G. McNeil, "Polio's Return After Near Eradication Prompts a Global Health Warning," The New York Times, May 5, 2014.

· #417

Saad B. Omer et al., "Vaccine Refusal, Mandatory Immunization, and the Risks of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases," The New England Journal of Medicine 360 (May 7, 2009): 1981–85; "Chinese CDC Admits Vaccine Reactions Cause Paralysis in Chinese Children," The Refusers, Oct. 10, 2013; Greg Poland, "Improving Adult Immunization and the Way of Sophia: A 12-Step Program," International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, March 12, 2012, Atlanta, GA.

· #418

Warren Jones and Ami Klin, "Attention to Eyes Is Present but in Decline in 2–6-Month-Old Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism," Nature, Nov. 6, 2013.

· #419

Paul A. Offit, "Why Are Pharmaceutical Companies Gradually Abandoning Vaccines?" Health Affairs, May 2005.

· #420

"A Pox on My Child: Cool," The Washington Post, Sept. 20, 2005.

· #421

Omer, "Vaccine Refusal, Mandatory Immunization, and the Risks of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases."

· #422

Poland, "Improving Adult Immunization and the Way of Sophia."

· #423

Daniel Salmon et al., "Factors Associated with Refusal of Childhood Vaccines Among Parents of School-Aged Children," JAMA Pediatrics 159, no. 5 (May 2005): 470–76.

· #424

Mike Stobbe, "More Kids Skip School Shots in 8 States," Associated Press, Nov. 28, 2011.

· #425

CDC, "Notes from the Field: Measles Outbreak – Indiana, June-July 2011"; CDC, "U. S. Multi-State Measles Outbreak 2014–2015"; David Siders et al., "Jerry Brown Signs California Vaccine Bill," The Sacramento Bee, June 30, 2015.

· #426

Pro-MED mail, "Measles Update," Sept. 19, 2011.

· #427

Philippa Roxby, "Measles Outbreak Warning as Cases Rise in Europe and UK," BBC News, May 13, 2011.

· #428

Pro-MED mail, "Measles Update."

· #429

"WHO: Europe Must Act on Measles Outbreak," Dec. 2, 2011, www.telegraph.co.uk.

· #430

Susana Ferreira, "Cholera Fallout: Can Haitians Sue the U. N. for the epidemic?" Time, Dec. 13, 2011.

· #431

Интервью с Марио Жозефом, 14 августа 2013 года.

· #432

R. S. Hendriksen et al., "Population Genetics of Vibrio cholerae from Nepal in 2010: Evidence on the Origin of the Haitian Outbreak," mBio 2, no. 4 (2011): e00157–11.

· #433

Robert A. Phillips, "The Patho-Physiology of Cholera," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 28, no. 3 (1963): 297.

· #434

Delaporte, Disease and Civilization, 88, 90.

· #435

Chambers, The Conquest of Cholera, 168.

· #436

David Wootton, Bad Medicine: Doctors Doing Harm Since Hippocrates (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).

· #437

Travis Proulx, Michael Inzlicht, and Eddie Harmon-Jones, "Understanding All Inconsistency Compensation as a Palliative Response to Violated Expectations," Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16, no. 5 (2012): 285–91.

· #438

Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 4th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012).

· #439

Wootton, Bad Medicine.

· #440

Ibid.

· #441

B. A. Fo?x, "How the Cholera Epidemic of 1831 Resulted in a New Technique for Fluid Resuscitation," Emergency Medicine Journal 20, no. 4 (2003): 316–18

· #442

Walter J. Daly and Herbert L. DuPont, "The Controversial and Short-Lived Early Use of Rehydration Therapy for Cholera," Clinical Infectious Diseases 47, no. 10 (2008): 1315–19.

· #443

James Johnson, ed., The Medico-Chirurgical Review, vol. 21, 1832.

· #444

Daly and DuPont, "The Controversial and Short-Lived Early Use of Rehydration Therapy for Cholera."

· #445

Anthony R. Mawson, "The Hands of John Snow: Clue to His Untimely Death?" Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 63, no. 6 (2009): 497–99.

· #446

David E. Lilienfeld, "John Snow: The First Hired Gun?" American Journal of Epidemiology 152, no. 1 (2000): 4–9; Johnson, The Ghost Map, 67.

· #447

Mawson, "The Hands of John Snow."

· #448

S. W. B. Newsom, "Pioneers in Infection Control: John Snow, Henry Whitehead, the Broad Street Pump, and the Beginnings of Geographical Epidemiology," The Journal of Hospital Infection 64, no. 3 (2006): 210–16.

· #449

Nigel Paneth et al., "A Rivalry of Foulness: Official and Unofficial Investigations of the London Cholera Epidemic of 1854," American Journal of Public Health 88, no. 10 (1998): 1545–53.

· #450

Lilienfeld, "John Snow."

· #451

Ibid.

· #452

Mawson, "The Hands of John Snow."

· #453

Lilienfeld, "John Snow."

· #454

Richard L. Guerrant, Benedito A. Carneiro-Filho, and Rebecca A. Dillingham, "Cholera, Diarrhea, and Oral Rehydration Therapy: Triumph and Indictment," Clinical Infectious Diseases 37, no. 3 (2003): 398–405.

· #455

Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 184.

· #456

Porter, The Greatest Benefit, 266.

· #457

John S. Haller, "Samson of the Materia Medica: Medical Theory and the Use and Abuse of Calomel: In Nineteenth Century America," Pharmacy in History 13, no. 2 (1971): 67–76.

· #458

Wootton, Bad Medicine.

· #459

Thomas W. Clarkson, "The Toxicology of Mercury," Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences 34, no. 4 (1997): 369–403.

· #460

B. S. Drasar and D. Forrest, eds., Cholera and the Ecology of "Vibrio cholerae" (London: Chapman & Hall, 1996), 55.

· #461

Stephen Halliday, The Great Stink: Sir Joseph Bazalgette and the Cleansing of the Victorian Metropolis (Mount Pleasant, SC: History Press, 2003); Dale H. Porter, The Life and Times of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney: Gentleman Scientist and Inventor, 1793–1875 (Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 1998).

· #462

John D. Thompson. "The Great Stench or the Fool's Argument," The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 64, no. 5 (1991): 529.

· #463

Halliday, The Great Stink; Johnson, The Ghost Map, 120; Solomon, Water, 258.

· #464

Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.

· #465

Porter, Greatest Benefit, 57.

· #466

Комментарий Дэвида Фисмана, 10 февраля 2015 года.

· #467

Wootton, Bad Medicine.

· #468

Ibid.

· #469

Echenberg, Africa in the Time of Cholera, 31.

· #470

Porter, The Life and Times of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney.

· #471

Ibid.

· #472

Ibid.

· #473

Thompson, "The Great Stench or the Fool's Argument."

· #474

Halliday, The Great Stink.

· #475

Location of Parliaments in the 13th Century," www.parliament.uk.

· #476

David Boswell Reid, Ventilation in American Dwellings (New York: Wiley & Halsted, 1858).

· #477

Robert Bruegmann, "Central Heating and Forced Ventilation: Origins and Effects on Architectural Design," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 37, no. 3 (Oct. 1978): 143–60.

· #478

Thompson, "The Great Stench or the Fool's Argument."

· #479

Halliday, The Great Stink.

· #480

Porter, The Life and Times of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney.

· #481

Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 141.

· #482

Blake, Water for the Cities, 171.

· #483

Koeppel, Water for Gotham, 287.

· #484

Duffy, A History of Public Health, 398, 418.

· #485

Rosenberg, The Cholera Years, 184; Allen, "5 Points Had Good Points."

· #486

Snowden, Naples in the Time of Cholera, 190.

· #487

Evans, Death in Hamburg, 292.

· #488

Snowden, Naples in the Time of Cholera, 69, 100, 190.

· #489

Evans, Death in Hamburg.

· #490

Nicholas Bakalar, "Milestones in Combating Cholera," The New York Times, Oct. 1, 2012.

· #491

Norman Howard-Jones, "Gelsenkirchen Typhoid Epidemic of 1901, Robert Koch, and the Dead Hand of Max von Pettenkofer," BMJ 1, no. 5845 (1973): 103.

· #492

Alfred S. Evans, "Pettenkofer Revisited: The Life and Contributions of Max von Pettenkofer (1818–1901)," The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 46, no. 3 (1973): 161; Alfred S. Evans, "Two Errors in Enteric Epidemiology: The Stories of Austin Flint and Max von Pettenkofer," Review of Infectious Diseases 7, no. 3 (1985): 434–40.

· #493

Echenberg, Africa in the Time of Cholera, 9.

· #494

Evans, Death in Hamburg, 497–98; Evans, "Two Errors in Enteric Epidemiology"; Christopher Hamlin, Cholera: The Biography (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 177.

· #495

Evans, Death in Hamburg, 292.

· #496

Alfredo Morabia, "Epidemiologic Interactions, Complexity, and the Lonesome Death of Max von Pettenkofer," American Journal of Epidemiology 166, no. 11 (2007): 1233–38.

· #497

Melosi, The Sanitary City, 94; S. J. Burian et al., "Urban Wastewater Management in the United States: Past, Present, and Future," Journal of Urban Technology 7 (2000): 33–62.

· #498

Ewald, Evolution of Infectious Disease, 72–73.

· #499

Hamlin, Cholera, 242.

· #500

Guerrant, "Cholera, Diarrhea, and Oral Rehydration Therapy."

· #501

Katherine Harmon, "Can a Vaccine Cure Haiti's Cholera?" Scientific American, Jan. 12, 2012.

· #502

Anwar Huq et al., "Simple Sari Cloth Filtration of Water Is Sustainable and Continues to Protect Villagers from Cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh," mBio 1, no. 1 (2010): e00034–10.

· #503

S. Fannin et al., "A Cluster of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia Among Homosexual Male Residents of Los Angeles and Range Counties, California," MMWR 31, no. 32 (June 18, 1982): 305–307.

· #504

Charlie Cooper, "Ebola Outbreak: Why Has 'Big Pharma' Failed Deadly Virus' Victims?" The Independent, Sept. 7, 2014.

· #505

Marc H. V. Van Regenmortel, "Reductionism and Complexity in Molecular Biology," EMBO Reports 5, no. 11 (2004): 1016.

· #506

Andrew C. Ahn et al., "The Limits of Reductionism in Medicine: Could Systems Biology Offer an Alternative?" PLoS Medicine 3, no. 6 (2006): e208.

· #507

Laura H. Kahn, "Confronting Zoonoses, Linking Human and Veterinary Medicine," Emerging Infectious Diseases 12, no. 4 (2006): 556.

· #508

Ewan M. Harrison et al., "A Shared Population of Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 15 Circulates in Humans and Companion Animals," mBio 5, no. 3 (2014): e00985–13.

· #509

Mathieu Albert et al., "Biomedical Scientists' Perception of the Social Sciences in Health Research," Social Science & Medicine 66, no. 12 (2008): 2520–31.

· #510

Sonia Shah, Crude: The Story of Oil (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004), 161.

· #511

Environmental Protection Agency, "Climate Change Indicators in the United States: Ocean Heat," Oct. 29, 2014.

· #512

Rachel Carson, The Sea Around Us (New York: Oxford University Press, 1951), ix.

· #513

Sir Alister Hardy, Great Waters: A Voyage of Natural History to Study Whales, Plankton, and the Waters of the Southern Ocean (New York: Harper, 1967).

· #514

R. R. Colwell, J. Kaper, and S. W. Joseph, "Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Other Vibrios: Occurrence and Distribution in Chesapeake Bay," Science, 198, no. 4315 (Oct. 28, 1977): 394–96.

· #515

Интервью с Ритой Колуэлл.

· #516

Anwar Huq, R. Bradley Sack, and Rita Colwell, "Cholera and Global Ecosystems," in Aron and Patz, Ecosystem Change and Public Health, 333.

· #517

Arnold Taylor, "Plankton and the Gulf Stream," New Scientist, March 1991.

· #518

Huq, Sack, and Colwell, "Cholera and Global Ecosystems," 336; Luigi Vezzulli, Rita R. Colwell, and Carla Pruzzo, "Ocean Warming and Spread of Pathogenic Vibrios in the Aquatic Environment," Microbial Ecology 65, no. 4 (2013): 817–25; Graeme C. Hays, Anthony J. Richardson, and Carol Robinson, "Climate Change and Marine Plankton," Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20, no. 6 (2005): 337–44; Gregory Beaugrand, Luczak Christophe, and Edwards Martin, "Rapid Biogeographical Plankton Shifts in the North Atlantic Ocean," Global Change Biology 15, no. 7 (2009): 1790–1803.

· #519

William H. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1976), 283.

· #520

Oscar Felsenfeld, "Some Observations on the Cholera (El Tor) Epidemic in 1961–62," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 28, no. 3 (1963): 289–96.

· #521

Ibid.

· #522

Rudolph Hugh, "A Comparison of Vibrio cholerae Pacini and Vibrio eltor Pribram," International Bulletin of Bacteriological Nomenclature and Taxonomy 15, no. 1 (1965): 61–68.

· #523

Paul H. Kratoska, ed., Southeast Asia Colonial History: High Imperialism (1890s – 1930s) (New York: Routledge, 2001).

· #524

C. E. de Moor, "Paracholera (El Tor): Enteritis Choleriformis El Tor van Loghem," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2 (1949): 5–17.

· #525

Agus P. Sari et al., "Executive Summary: Indonesia and Climate Change: Working Paper on Current Status and Policies," Department for International Development and the World Bank, March 2007; Bernhard Glaeser and Marion Glaser, "Global Change and Coastal Threats: The Indonesian Case. An Attempt in Multi-Level Social-Ecological Research," Human Ecology Review 17, no. 2 (2010); Kathleen Schwerdtner M??ez et al., "Water Scarcity in the Spermonde Archipelago, Sulawesi, Indonesia: Past, Present and Future," Environmental Science & Policy 23 (2012): 74–84.

· #526

Felsenfeld, "Some Observations on the Cholera (El Tor) Epidemic."

· #527

Far East Pressing Anti-Cholera Steps," The New York Times, Aug. 20, 1961; "Chinese Reds Blame U. S. in Cholera Rise," The New York Times, Aug. 19, 1961.

· #528

C. Sharma et al., "Molecular Evidence That a Distinct Vibrio cholerae 01 Biotype El Tor Strain in Calcutta May Have Spread to the African Continent," Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36, no. 3 (March 1998): 843–44.

· #529

Echenberg, Africa in the Time of Cholera, 125–27.

· #530

Oscar Felsenfeld, "Present Status of the El Tor Vibrio Problem," Bacteriological Reviews 28, no. 1 (1964): 72; Colwell, "Global Climate and Infectious Disease."

· #531

Iv?n J. Ram?rez, Sue C. Grady, and Michael H. Glantz, "Reexamining El Ni?o and Cholera in Peru: A Climate Affairs Approach," Weather, Climate, and Society 5 (2013): 148–61.

· #532

Bill Manson, "The Ocean Has a Long Memory," San Diego Reader, Feb. 12, 1998; Rosa R. Mouri?o-P?rez, "Oceanography and the Seventh Cholera Pandemic," Epidemiology 9, no. 3 (1998): 355–57.

· #533

Ram?rez, Grady, and Glantz, "Reexamining El Ni?o and Cholera in Peru"; Mar?a Ana Fern?ndez-?lamo and Jaime F?rber-Lorda, "Zooplankton and the Oceanography of the Eastern Tropical Pacific: A Review," Progress in Oceanography 69, no. 2 (2006): 318–59; Bert Rein et al., "El Ni?o Variability off Peru During the Last 20,000 Years," Paleoceanography 20, no. 4 (2005); Jaime Martinez-Urtaza et al., "Emergence of Asiatic Vibrio Diseases in South America in Phase with El Ni?o," Epidemiology 19, no. 6 (2008): 829–37.

· #534

Vezzulli, Colwell, and Pruzzo, "Ocean Warming and Spread of Pathogenic Vibrios"; Rafael Montilla et al., "Serogroup Conversion of Vibrio Cholerae non-O1 to Vibrio Cholerae O1: Effect of Growth State of Cells, Temperature, and Salinity," Canadian Journal of Microbiology 42, no. 1 (1996): 87–93; Luigi Vezzulli et al., "Dual Role Colonization Factors Connecting Vibrio cholerae's Lifestyles in Human and Aquatic Environments Open New Perspectives for Combating Infectious Diseases," Current Opinions in Biotechnology 19 (2008): 254–59.

· #535

P. R. Epstein, "Algal Blooms in the Spread and Persistence of Cholera," BioSystems 31, no. 2 (1993): 209–221; Jeffrey W. Turner et al., "Plankton Composition and Environmental Factors Contribute to Vibrio Seasonality," The ISME Journal 3, no. 9 (2009): 1082–92.

· #536

Connie Lam et al., "Evolution of Seventh Cholera Pandemic and Origin of 1991 Epidemic, Latin America," Emerging Infectious Diseases 16, no. 7 (2010): 1130.

· #537

"Cholera Epidemic Kills 51 in Peru," The Times (London), Feb. 11, 1991.

· #538

Simon Strong, "Peru Minister Quits in Cholera Row," The Independent, March 19, 1991; Malcolm Coad, "Peru's Cholera Epidemic Spreads to Its Neighbors," The Guardian, April 18, 1991; "Cholera Cases Confirmed Near Border with U. S.," Montreal Gazette, March 18, 1992; William Booth, "Cholera's Mysterious Journey North," The Washington Post, Aug. 26, 1991; "Baywatch Filming Hit by Cholera Alert," London Evening Standard, July 29, 1992; Barbara Turnbull, "Flight Hit by Cholera, 2 Sought in Canada," Toronto Star, Feb. 22, 1992; Les Whittington, "Mexico; Traffickers Blamed for Spread of Cholera," Ottawa Citizen, Sept. 11, 1991.

· #539

J. P. Guthmann, "Epidemic Cholera in Latin America: Spread and Routes of Transmission," The Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 98, no. 6 (1995): 419.

· #540

Jazel Dolores and Karla J. F. Satchell, "Analysis of Vibrio cholerae: Genome Sequences Reveals Unique rtxA Variants in Environmental Strains and an rtxA-Null Mutation in Recent Altered El Tor Isolates," mBio 4, no. 2 (2013); Ashrafus Safa, G. Balakrish Nair, and Richard Y. C. Kong, "Evolution of New Variants of Vibrio cholerae O1," Trends in Microbiology 18, no. 1 (2010): 46–54

· #541

A. K. Siddique et al., "El Tor Cholera with Severe Disease: A New Threat to Asia and Beyond," Epidemiology and Infection 138, no. 3 (2010): 347–52.

· #542

R. Piarroux and B. Faucher, "Cholera Epidemics in 2010: Respective Roles of Environment, Strain Changes, and Human-Driven Dissemination," Clinical Microbiology and Infection 18, no. 3 (2012): 231–38.

· #543

Deborah Jenson et al., "Cholera in Haiti and Other Caribbean Regions, 19th Century," Emerging Infectious Diseases 17, no. 11 (Nov. 2011).

· #544

Интервью с Анваром Хуком, 25 января 2011 года.

· #545

Интервью с Ритой Колуэлл; "The United Nations' Duty in Haiti's Cholera Outbreak," The Washington Post, Aug. 11, 2013.

· #546

Carlos Seas et al., "New Insights on the Emergence of Cholera in Latin America During 1991: the Peruvian Experience," American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 62, no. 4 (2000): 513–17.

· #547

Luigi Vezzulli et al., "Long-Term Effects of Ocean Warming on the Prokaryotic Community: Evidence from the Vibrios," The ISME Journal 6, no. 1 (2012): 21–30.

· #548

Peter Andrey Smith, "Sea Sick," Modern Farmer, Sept. 11, 2013.

· #549

Colwell, "Global Climate and Infectious Disease."

· #550

Alexander, "An Overview of the Epidemiology of Avian Influenza."

· #551

Drexler, Secret Agents, 65.

· #552

Joan Brunkard, "Climate Change Impacts on Waterborne Diseases Outbreaks," International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, March 12, 2012; Violeta Trinidad Pard?o Sedas, "Influence of Environmental Factors on the Presence of Vibrio cholerae in the Marine Environment: A Climate Link," The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 1, no. 3 (2007): 224–41.

· #553

Jonathan E. Soverow et al., "Infectious Disease in a Warming World: How Weather Influenced West Nile Virus in the United States (2001–2005)," Environmental Health Perspectives 117, no. 7 (2009): 1049–52.

· #554

Peter Daszak, "Fostering Advances in Interdisciplinary Climate Science," lecture, Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, March 31 – April 2, 2011.

· #555

S. Mistry and A. Moreno-Valdez, "Climate Change and Bats: Vampire Bats Offer Clues to the Future," Bats 26, no. 2 (Summer 2008).

· #556

Lars Eisen and Chester G. Moore, "Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti in the Continental United States: a Vector at the Cool Margin of Its Geographic Range," Journal of Medical Entomology 50, no. 3 (2013): 467–78; Diana Marcum, "California Residents Cautioned to Look Out for Yellow Fever Mosquito," Los Angeles Times, Oct. 20, 2013.

· #557

D. Roiz et al., "Climatic Factors Driving Invasion of the Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) into New Areas of Trentino, Northern Italy," PLoS ONE 6, no. 4 (April 15, 2011): e14800.

· #558

Laura Jensen, "What Does Climate Change and Deforestation Mean for Lyme Disease in the 21st Century?" Tick Talk, an investigative project on Lyme disease, SUNY New Paltz.

· #559

Andrew Nikiforuk, "Beetlemania," New Scientist, Nov. 5, 2011.

· #560

M. C. Fisher et al., "Emerging Fungal Threats to Animal, Plant and Ecosystem Health," Nature 484 (April 2012): 186–94.

· #561

Ibid.

· #562

Arturo Casadevall, "Fungi and the Rise of Mammals," PLoS Pathogens 8, no. 8 (2012): e1002808.

· #563

Arturo Casadevall, "Thoughts on the Origin of Microbial Virulence," International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, March 13, 2012.

· #564

Письмо Ларри Мэдоффа подписчикам Pro-MED, 5 июня 2012 года.

· #565

Fisher, "Emerging Fungal Threats to Animal, Plant and Ecosystem Health."

· #566

Markus G. Weinbauer and Fereidoun Rassoulzadegan, "Extinction of Microbes: Evidence and Potential Consequences," Endangered Species Research 3, no. 2 (2007): 205–15; Gerard Tortora, Berdelle Funke, and Christine Case, Microbiology: An Introduction, 10th ed. (San Francisco: Pearson Education, 2010).

· #567

Kat McGowan, "How Life Made the Leap from Single Cells to Multicellular Animals," Wired, Aug. 1, 2014

· #568

В анализах крови испытуемых, которым предъявлялись изображения людей, чихающих или покрытых оспинами, обнаруживалось на 23,6 % больше интерлейкина-6, чем у тех, кто разглядывал изображения предметов мебели или нацеленного оружия. C. L. Fincher and R. Thornhill, "Parasite-Stress Promotes In-Group Assortative Sociality: The Cases of Strong Family Ties and Heightened Religiosity," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35, no. 2 (2012): 61–79.

· #569

Sabra L. Klein and Randy J. Nelson, "Influence of Social Factors on Immune Function and Reproduction," Reviews of Reproduction 4, no. 3 (1999): 168–78.

· #570

Matt Ridley, The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature (New York: Macmillan, 1994), 80.

· #571

Michael A. Brockhurst, "Sex, Death, and the Red Queen," Science, July 8, 2011.

· #572

Makoto Takeo et al., "Wnt Activation in Nail Epithelium Couples Nail Growth to Digit Regeneration," Nature 499, no. 7457 (2013): 228–32.

· #573

Joshua Mitteldorf, "Evolutionary Origins of Aging," in Gregory M. Fahy et al., eds., The Future of Aging: Pathways to Human Life Extension (Dordrecht: Springer, 2010).

· #574

Jerome Wodinsky, "Hormonal Inhibition of Feeding and Death in Octopus: Control by Optic Gland Secretion," Science 198, no. 4320 (1977): 948–51.

· #575

Valter D. Longo, Joshua Mitteldorf, and Vladimir P. Skulachev, "Programmed and Altruistic Ageing," Nature Reviews Genetics 6, no. 11 (2005): 866–72.

· #576

Интервью с Джошуа Миттельдорфом, 4 февраля 2015 года.

· #577

Catherine Clabby, "A Magic Number? An Australian Team Says It Has Figured Out the Minimum Viable Population for Mammals, Reptiles, Birds, Plants and the Rest," American Scientist 98 (2010): 24–25.

· #578

Curtis H. Flather et al., "Minimum Viable Populations: Is There a 'Magic Number' for Conservation Practitioners?" Trends in Ecology & Evolution 26, no. 6 (2011): 307–16.

· #579

Согласно адаптационной теории старения, адаптивность самоубийственных генов проявляется на уровне популяции, а не особи. Эволюционные механизмы действия так называемого группового отбора в данном случае точно не установлены. Joshua Mitteldorf and John Pepper, "Senescence as an Adaptation to Limit the Spread of Disease," Journal of Theoretical Biology 260, no. 2 (2009): 186–95.

· #580

Diogo Meyer and Glenys Thomson, "How Selection Shapes Variation of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex: A Review," Annals of Human Genetics 65, no. 1 (2001): 1–26.

· #581

Интервью с Гленис Томсон, 6 февраля 2015 года; Meyer and Thomson, "How Selection Shapes Variation of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex."

· #582

Ajit Varki, "Human-Specific Changes in Siglec Genes," video lecture, CARTA: The Genetics of Humanness, April 9, 2011; Darius Ghaderi et al., "Sexual Selection by Female Immunity Against Paternal Antigens Can Fix Loss of Function Alleles," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, no. 43 (2011): 17743–48.

· #583

Alasdair Wilkins, "How Sugar Molecules Secretly Shaped Human Evolution," io9, Oct. 10, 2011.

· #584

Интервью с Аджитом Варки, 9 февраля 2015 года; Bruce Lieberman, "Human Evolution: Details of Being Human," Nature, July 2, 2008.

· #585

Kenneth D. Beaman et al., "Immune Etiology of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and Its Diagnosis," American Journal of Reproductive Immunology 67, no. 4 (2012): 319–25.

· #586

Annie N. Samraj et al., "A Red Meat-Derived Glycan Promotes Inflammation and Cancer Progression," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, no. 2 (2015): 542–47.

· #587

F. B. Piel et al., "Global Epidemiology of Sickle Haemoglobin in Neonates: A Contemporary Geostatistical Model-Based Map and Population Estimates," The Lancet 381, no. 9861 (Jan. 2013): 142–51.

· #588

Elinor K. Karlsson, Dominic P. Kwiatkowski, and Pardis C. Sabeti, "Natural Selection and Infectious Disease in Human Populations," Nature Reviews Genetics 15, no. 6 (2014): 379–93.

· #589

David J. Anstee, "The Relationship Between Blood Groups and Disease," Blood 115, no. 23 (2010): 4635–43.

· #590

Karlsson, Kwiatkowski, and Sabeti, "Natural Selection and Infectious Disease in Human Populations."

· #591

Anstee, "The Relationship Between Blood Groups and Disease."

· #592

Gregory Demas and Randy Nelson, eds., Ecoimmunology (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 234.

· #593

Meyer and Thomson, "How Selection Shapes Variation of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex."

· #594

Fincher and Thornhill, "Parasite-Stress Promotes In-Group Assortative Sociality.

· #595

McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, 91–92.

· #596

Fincher and Thornhill, "Parasite-Stress Promotes In-Group Assortative Sociality."

· #597

E. Cashdan, "Ethnic Diversity and Its Environmental Determinants: Effects of Climate, Pathogens, and Habitat Diversity," American Anthropologist 103 (2001): 968–91.

· #598

Carlos David Navarrete and Daniel M. T. Fessler, "Disease Avoidance and Ethnocentrism: The Effects of Disease Vulnerability and Disgust Sensitivity on Intergroup Attitudes," Evolution and Human Behavior 27, no. 4 (2006): 270–82.

· #599

Andrew Spielman and Michael d'Antonio, Mosquito: The Story of Man's Deadliest Foe (New York: Hyperion, 2002), 49.

· #600

Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, 210–11.

· #601

Sonia Shah, The Fever: How Malaria Has Ruled Humankind for 500,000 Years (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010), 41–43.

· #602

R. Thornhill and S. W. Gangestad, "Facial Sexual Dimorphism, Developmental Stability and Susceptibility to Disease in Men and Women," Evolution and Human Behavior 27 (2006): 131–44.

· #603

A. Booth and J. Dabbs, "Testosterone and Men's Marriages," Social Forces 72 (1993): 463–77.

· #604

Anthony C. Little, Lisa M. DeBruine, and Benedict C. Jones, "Exposure to Visual Cues of Pathogen Contagion Changes Preferences for Masculinity and Symmetry in Opposite-Sex Faces," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 278, no. 1714 (2011): 2032–39.

· #605

Meyer and Thomson, "How Selection Shapes Variation of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex."

· #606

Margaret McFall-Ngai et al., "Animals in a Bacterial World, a New Imperative for the Life Sciences," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 9 (2013): 3229–36; Gerard Eberl, "A New Vision of Immunity: Homeostasis of the Superorganism," Mucosal Immunology 3, no. 5 (2010): 450–60.

· #607

John F. Cryan and Timothy G. Dinan, "Mind-Altering Microorganisms: The Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Brain and Behaviour," Nature Reviews Neuroscience 13, no. 10 (2012): 701–12.

· #608

McGowan, "How Life Made the Leap from Single Cells to Multicellular Animals."

· #609

F. Prugnolle et al., "Pathogen-Driven Selection and Worldwide HLA Class I Diversity," Current Biology 15 (2005): 1022–27.

· #610

Kenneth Miller, "Archaeologists Find Earliest Evidence of Humans Cooking with Fire," Discover, May 2013.

· #611

Christopher Sandom et al., "Global Late Quaternary Megafauna Extinctions Linked to Humans, Not Climate Change," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281, no. 1787 (June 4, 2014).

· #612

Saeed Ahmed and Dorrine Mendoza, "Ebola Hysteria: An Epic, Epidemic Overreaction," CNN, Oct. 20, 2014.

· #613

Reuters, "Kentucky Teacher Resigns Amid Parents' Ebola Fears: Report," The Huffington Post, Nov. 3, 2014; Olga Khazan, "The Psychology of Irrational Fear," The Atlantic, Oct. 31, 2014; Amanda Terkel, "Oklahoma Teacher Will Have to Quarantine Herself After Trip to Ebola-free Rwanda," The Huffington Post, Oct. 28, 2014; Amanda Cuda and John Burgeson, "Milford Girl in Ebola Scare Wants to Return to School," www.CTPost.com, Oct. 30, 2014.

· #614

Matt Byrne, "Maine School Board Puts Teacher on Leave After She Traveled to Dallas," Portland Press Herald, Oct. 17, 2014.

· #615

Ahmed and Mendoza, "Ebola Hysteria"; CDC, "It's Turkey Time: Safely Prepare Your Holiday Meal," Nov. 25, 2014.

· #616

Khazan, "The Psychology of Irrational Fear."

· #617

Jere Longman, "Africa Cup Disrupted by Ebola Concerns," The New York Times, Nov. 11, 2014; "The Ignorance Epidemic," The Economist, Nov. 15, 2014.

· #618

Eyder Peralta, "Health Care Worker on Cruise Ship Tests Negative for Ebola," NPR, Oct. 19, 2014.

· #619

"'Ebola' Coffee Cup Puts Plane on Lockdown at Dublin Airport," RT.com, Oct. 30, 2014.

· #620

Ottawa's Ebola Overkill," The Globe and Mail, Nov. 3, 2014.

· #621

Drew Hinshaw and Jacob Bunge, "U. S. Buys Up Ebola Gear, Leaving Little for Africa," The Wall Street Journal, Nov. 25, 2014.

· #622

Katie Helper, "More Americans Have Been Married to Kim Kardashian than Have Died from Ebola," Raw Story, Oct. 22, 2014.

· #623

H. Rhee and D. J. Cameron, "Lyme Disease and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): An Overview," International Journal of General Medicine 5 (2012): 163–74.

· #624

Jennifer Newman, "Local Lyme Impacts Outdoor Groups and Businesses," and Zameena Mejia, "On the Trail of De-Railing Lyme," Tick Talk, State University of New York at New Paltz, 2014.

· #625

Maria G. Guzman, Mayling Alvarez, and Scott B. Halstead, "Secondary Infection as a Risk Factor for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome: An Historical Perspective and Role of Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Infection," Archives of Virology 158, no. 7 (2013): 1445–59; "Dengue," CDC website, June 9, 2014.

· #626

Sean Kinney, "CDC Errs in Levels of Dengue Cases in Key West," Florida Keys Keynoter, July 17, 2010.

· #627

Sean Kinney, "CDC Stands by Key West Dengue-Fever Report," Florida Keys Keynoter, July 28, 2010.

· #628

Denise Grady and Catharine Skipp, "Dengue Fever? What About It, Key West Says," The New York Times, July 24, 2010.

· #629

Bob LaMendola, "Broward Woman Gets Dengue Fever on Key West Trip," Sun-Sentinel, July 30, 2010.

· #630

Woman in Florida Diagnosed with Cholera," CNN, Nov. 17, 2010; "Cholera, Diarrhea and Dysentery Update 2011 (23): Haiti, Dominican Republic," ProMED, July 26, 2011; Juan Tamayo, "Cholera Reportedly Kills 15, Sickens Hundreds in Eastern Cuba," The Miami Herald, July 6, 2012; Fox News Latino, "Puerto Rico: Cholera, After Affecting Haiti and Dominican Republic, Hits Island," July 5, 2011; "Shanty Towns and Cholera," editorial, The Freeport News, Nov. 15, 2012.

· #631

Why Pandemic Disease and War are So Similar," The Economist, March 28, 2015

· #632

Deborah A. Adams et al., "Summary of Notifiable Diseases – United States, 2011," MMWR 60, no. 53 (July 5, 2013): 1–117.

· #633

Stephen S. Morse, "Public Health Surveillance and Infectious Disease Detection," Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 10, no. 1 (2012): 6–16.

· #634

Baize, "Emergence of Zaire Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea."

· #635

Norimitsu Onishi, "Empty Ebola Clinics in Liberia Are Seen as Misstep in US Relief Effort," The New York Times, April 11, 2015.

· #636

Интервью с Лео Пуном, Гонконг, январь 2012 года.

· #637

Karen J. Monaghan, "SARS: Down but Still a Threat," in Institute of Medicine, Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004), 255.

· #638

Erin Place, "In Light of EEE Death, County Opts to Spray," The Palladium-Times, Aug. 16, 2011.

· #639

Интервью с Айвеном Гейтоном, 26 июня 2014 года.

· #640

Aleszu Bajak, "Asian Tiger Mosquito Could Expand Painful Caribbean Virus into U. S.," Scientific American, Aug. 12, 2014; Pan American Health Organization, "Chikungunya: A New Virus in the Region of the Americas," July 8, 2014.

· #641

Charles Kenny, "The Ebola Outbreak Shows Why the Global Health System Is Broken," BusinessWeek, Aug. 11, 2014; Kus, "New Delhi Metallo-ss-lactamase-1"; Интервью с Маликом Пейрисом; Davis, The Monster at Our Door, 112.

· #642

Интервью с Лео Пуном.

· #643

USAID, "Emerging Pandemic Threats: Program Overview," June 2010.

· #644

Martin Cetron, "Clinician-Based Surveillance Networks Utilizing Travelers as Sentinels for Emerging Infectious Diseases," International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, March 13, 2012.

· #645

Интервью с Джеймсом Уилсоном, 31 июля 2013 года; Wolfe, The Viral Storm, 213; Rodrique Ngowi, "US Bots Flagged Ebola Before Outbreak Announced," Associated Press, Aug. 9, 2014.

· #646

Интервью с Джеймсом Уилсоном; Wolfe, The Viral Storm, 195, 213; Ngowi, "US Bots Flagged Ebola Before Outbreak Announced"; David Braun, "Anatomy of the Discovery of the Deadly Bas-Congo Virus," National Geographic, Sept. 27, 2012.

· #647

Gina Kolata, "The New Generation of Microbe Hunters," The New York Times, Aug. 29, 2011; Jan Semenza, "The Impact of Economic Crises on Communicable Diseases," International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, March 12, 2012.

· #648

Larry Brilliant, "My Wish: Help Me Stop Pandemics," TED, Feb. 2006.

· #649

Интервью с Питером Дашаком.

· #650

Walsh, "Emerging Carbapenemases."

· #651

Alex Whiting, "New Pandemic Insurance to Prevent Crises Through Early Payouts," Reuters, March 26, 2015.

· #652

Интервью с Джеймсом Уилсоном.

· #653

Christopher Joyce, "Cellphones Could Help Doctors Stay Ahead of an Epidemic," Shots, NPR's Health Blog, Aug. 31, 2011.

· #654

Pan American Health Organization, "Epidemiological Update: Cholera," March 20, 2014.

· #655

Белль-Анс не единственное селение, пострадавшее от непродуманной гуманитарной помощи, на Гаити достаточно и других примеров. Согласно исследованию 2012 года, более трети гаитянских колодцев, вырытых отрядами гуманитарной помощи – и в большинстве своем оставленных без технического надзора, – заражены фекальными бактериями. Вернувшись в Порт-о-Пренс, я пообщалась с молодым британцем, с гордостью заявившим, что устанавливает туалеты в местной школе на средства своего трастового фонда. Однако, несмотря на бушующую эпидемию холеры и доказанный факт фекального загрязнения окружающей среды на Гаити, он даже не задумывался, куда будут отводиться сточные воды из этих туалетов. «В реку, наверное, – поразмыслив, ответил он на мой каверзный вопрос. – Как и везде!» См.: Jocelyn M. Widmer et al., "Water-Related Infrastructure in a Region of Post-Earthquake Haiti: High Levels of Fecal Contamination and Need for Ongoing Monitoring," The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91, no. 4 (Oct. 2014): 790–97.

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