/ / 10% Human. /
/


: 10% Human.



, , , , , . , , , . , . , , .

1.International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (2004). Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome. Nature 431: 931945.

2.Nyholm, S.V. and McFall-Ngai, M.J. (2004). The winnowing: Establishing the squidVibrio symbiosis. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2: 632642. 3. Bollinger, R.R. et al. (2007). Biofilms in the large bowel suggest an apparent function of the human vermiform appendix. Journal of Theoretical Biology 249: 826831.

4.Short, A.R. (1947). The causation of appendicitis. British Journal of Surgery 53: 221223.

5.Barker, D.J.P. (1985). Acute appendicitis and dietary fibre: an alternative hypothesis. British Medical Journal 290: 11251127.

6.Barker, D.J.P. et al. (1988). Acute appendicitis and bathrooms in three samples of British children. British Medical Journal 296: 956958.

7.Janszky, I. et al. (2011). Childhood appendectomy, tonsillectomy, and risk for premature acute myocardial infarction a nationwide population-based cohort study. European Heart Journal 32: 22902296.

8.Sanders, N.L. et al. (2013). Appendectomy and Clostridium dififcile colitis: Relationships revealed by clinical observations and immunology. World Journal of Gastroenterology 19: 56075614.

9.Bry, L. et al. (1996). A model of host-microbial interactions in an open mammalian ecosystem. Science 273: 13801383.

10.The Human Microbiome Project Consortium (2012). Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature 486: 207214.

1

1.Gale, E.A.M. (2002). The rise of childhood type 1 diabetes in the 20th century. Diabetes 51: 33533361.

2.World Health Organisation (2014). Global Health Observatory Data Overweight and Obesity. Available at: http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/overweight/en/.

3.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. MMWR 63 (No. SS-02): 121.

4.Bengmark, S. (2013). Gut microbiota, immune development and function. Pharmacological Research 69: 87113.

5.von Mutius, E. et al. (1994) Prevalence of asthma and atopy in two areas of West and East Germany. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 149: 358364.

6.Aligne, C.A. et al. (2000). Risk factors for pediatric asthma: Contributions of poverty, race, and urban residence. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 162: 873877.

7.Ngo, S.T., Steyn, F.J. and McCombe, P.A. (2014). Gender differences in autoimmune disease. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 35: 347369.

8.Krolewski, A.S. et al. (1987). Epidemiologic approach to the etiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus and its complications. The New England Journal of Medicine 26: 13901398.

9.Bach, J.-F. (2002). The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases. The New England Journal of Medicine 347: 911920.

10.Uramoto, K.M. et al. (1999) Trends in the incidence and mortality of systemic lupus erythematosus, 19501992. Arthritis & Rheumatism 42: 4650.

11.Alonso, A. and Hernan, M.A. (2008). Temporal trends in the incidence of multiple sclerosis: A systematic review. Neurology 71: 129135.

12.Werner, S. et al. (2002). The incidence of atopic dermatitis in school entrants is associated with individual lifestyle factors but not with local environmental factors in Hannover, Germany. British Journal of Dermatology 147: 95104.

2

1.Bairlein, F. (2002). How to get fat: nutritional mechanisms of seasonal fat accumulation in migratory songbirds. Naturwissenschaften 89: 110. 2. Heini, A.F. and Weinsier, R.L. (1997). Divergent trends in obesity and fat intake patterns: The American paradox. American Journal of Medicine 102: 259264.

3.Silventoinen, K. et al. (2004). Trends in obesity and energy supply in the WHO MONICA Project. International Journal of Obesity 28: 710718.

4.Troiano, R.P. et al. (2000). Energy and fat intakes of children and adolescents in the United States: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72: 1343s1353s.

5.Prentice, A.M. and Jebb, S.A. (1995). Obesity in Britain: Gluttony or sloth? British Journal of Medicine 311: 437439.

6.Westerterp, K.R. and Speakman, J.R. (2008). Physical activity energy expenditure has not declined since the 1980s and matches energy expenditures of wild mammals. International Journal of Obesity 32: 12561263.

7.World Health Organisation (2014). Global Health Observatory Data Overweight and Obesity. Available at: http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/overweight/en/.

8.Speliotes, E.K. et al. (2010). Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index. Nature Genetics 42: 937948.

9.Marshall, J.K. et al. (2010). Eight year prognosis of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome following waterborne bacterial dysentery. Gut 59: 605611.

10.Gwee, K.-A. (2005). Irritable bowel syndrome in developing countries a disorder of civilization or colonization? Neurogastroenterology and Motility 17: 317324.

11.Collins, S.M. (2014). A role for the gut microbiota in IBS. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology 11: 497505.

12.Jeffery, I.B. et al. (2012). An irritable bowel syndrome subtype defined by species-specific alterations in faecal microbiota. Gut 61: 9971006.

13.Backhed, F. et al. (2004). The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101: 1571815723.

14.Ley, R.E. et al. (2005). Obesity alters gut microbial ecology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102: 1107011075.

15.Turnbaugh, P.J. et al. (2006). An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature 444: 10271031.

16.Centers for Disease Control (2014). Obesity Prevalence Maps. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/prevalence-maps.html.

17.Gallos, L.K. et al. (2012). Collective behavior in the spatial spreading of obesity. Scientific Reports 2: no. 454.

18.Christakis, N.A. and Fowler, J.H. (2007). The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. The New England Journal of Medicine 357: 370379.

19.Dhurandhar, N.V. et al. (1997). Association of adenovirus infection with human obesity. Obesity Research 5: 464469.

20.Atkinson, R.L. et al. (2005). Human adenovirus-36 is associated with increased body weight and paradoxical reduction of serum lipids. International Journal of Obesity 29: 281286.

21.Everard, A. et al. (2013). Cross-talk between Akkermansia muciniphila and intestinal epithelium controls diet-induced obesity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110: 90669071.

22.Liou, A.P. et al. (2013). Conserved shifts in the gut microbiota due to gastric bypass reduce host weight and adiposity. Science Translational Medicine 5: 111.

3

1.Sessions, S.K. and Ruth, S.B. (1990). Explanation for naturally occurring supernumerary limbs in amphibians. Journal of Experimental Biology 254: 3847.

2.Andersen, S.B. et al. (2009). The life of a dead ant: The expression of an adaptive extended phenotype. The American Naturalist 174: 424433.

3.Herrera, C. et al. (2001). Maladie de Whipple: Tableau psychiatrique inaugural. Revue M?dicale de Li?ge 56: 676680.

4.Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child 2: 217250.

5.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. MMWR 63 (No. SS-02): 121.

6.Bolte, E.R. (1998). Autism and Clostridium tetani. Medical Hypotheses 51: 133144.

7.Sandler, R.H. et al. (2000). Short-term benefit from oral vancomycin treatment of regressive-onset autism. Journal of Child Neurology 15: 429435.

8.Sudo, N., Chida, Y. et al. (2004). Postnatal microbial colonization programs the hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal system for stress response in mice. Journal of Physiology 558: 263275.

9.Finegold, S.M. et al. (2002). Gastrointestinal microflora studies in lateonset autism. Clinical Infectious Diseases 35 (Suppl 1): S6S16.

10.Flegr, J. (2007). Effects of Toxoplasma on human behavior. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33: 757760.

11.Torrey, E.F. and Yolken, R.H. (2003). Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9: 13751380.

12.Brynska, A., Tomaszewicz-Libudzic, E. and Wolanczyk, T. (2001). Obsessive-compulsive disorder and acquired toxoplasmosis in two children. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 10: 200204.

13.Cryan, J.F. and Dinan, T.G. (2012). Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behaviour. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 13: 701712.

14.Bercik, P. et al. (2011). The intestinal microbiota affect central levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and behavior in mice. Gastroenterology 141: 599609.

15.Voigt, C.C., Caspers, B. and Speck, S. (2005). Bats, bacteria and bat smell: Sex-specific diversity of microbes in a sexually-selected scent organ. Journal of Mammalogy 86: 745749.

16.Sharon, G. et al. (2010). Commensal bacteria play a role in mating preference of Drosophila melanogaster. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 2005120056.

17.Wedekind, C. et al. (1995). MHC-dependent mate preferences in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 260: 245249.

18.Montiel-Castro, A.J. et al. (2013). The microbiotagutbrain axis: neurobehavioral correlates, health and sociality. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 7: 116.

19.Dinan, T.G. and Cryan, J.F. (2013). Melancholic microbes: alink between gut microbiota and depression? Neurogastroenterology &Motility 25: 713719.

20.Khansari, P.S. and Sperlagh, B. (2012). Inflammation in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Inflammopharmacology 20: 103107.

21.Hornig, M. (2013). The role of microbes and autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric illness. Current Opinion in Rheumatology 25: 488495.

22.MacFabe, D.F. et al. (2007). Neurobiological effects of intraventricular propionic acid in rats: Possible role of short chain fatty acids on the pathogenesis and characteristics of autism spectrum disorders. Behavioural Brain Research 176: 149169.

4

1.Strachan, D.P. (1989). Hay fever, hygiene, and household size. British Medical Journal, 299: 12591260.

2.Rook, G.A.W. (2010). 99th Dahlem Conference on Infection, Inflammation and Chronic Inflammatory Disorders: Darwinian medicine and the hygiene or old friends hypothesis. Clinical & Experimental Immunology 160: 7079.

3.Zilber-Rosenberg, I. and Rosenberg, E. (2008). Role of microorganisms in the evolution of animals and plants: the hologenome theory of evolution. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 32: 723735.

4.Williamson, A.P. et al. (1977). A special report: Four-year study of a boy with combined immune deficiency maintained in strict reverse isolation from birth. Pediatric Research 11: 6364.

5.Sprinz, H. et al. (1961). The response of the germ-free guinea pig to oral bacterial challenge with Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. American Journal of Pathology 39: 681695.

6.Wold, A.E. (1998). The hygiene hypothesis revised: is the rising frequency of allergy due to changes in the intestinal flora? Allergy 53 (s46): 2025.

7. Sakaguchi, S. et al. (2008). Regulatory T cells and immune tolerance. Cell 133: 775787.

8. ?stman, S. et al. (2006). Impaired regulatory T cell function in germfree mice. European Journal of Immunology 36: 23362346.

9.Mazmanian, S.K. and Kasper, D.L. (2006). The love-hate relationship between bacterial polysaccharides and the host immune system. Nature Reviews Immunology 6: 849858.

10.Miller, M.B. et al. (2002). Parallel quorum sensing systems converge to regulate virulence in Vibrio cholerae. Cell 110: 303314.

11.Fasano, A. (2011). Zonulin and its regulation of intestinal barrier function: The biological door to inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer. Physiological Review 91: 151175.

12.Fasano, A. et al. (2000). Zonulin, a newly discovered modulator of intestinal permeability, and its expression in coeliac disease. The Lancet, 355: 15181519.

13.Maes, M., Kubera, M. and Leunis, J.-C. (2008). The gut-brain barrier in major depression: Intestinal mucosal dysfunction with an increased translocation of LPS from gram negative enterobacteria (leaky gut) plays a role in the inflammatory pathophysiology of depression. Neuroendocrinology Letters 29: 117124.

14.de Magistris, L. et al. (2010). Alterations of the intestinal barrier in patients with autism spectrum disorders and in their first-degree relatives. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 51: 418424.

15.Grice, E.A. and Segre, J.A. (2011). The skin microbiome. Nature Reviews Microbiology 9: 244253.

16.Farrar, M.D. and Ingham, E. (2004). Acne: Inflammation. Clinics in Dermatology 22: 380384.

17.Kucharzik, T. et al. (2006). Recent understanding of IBD pathogenesis: Implications for future therapies. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 12: 10681083.

18.Schwabe, R.F. and Jobin, C. (2013). The microbiome and cancer. Nature Reviews Cancer 13: 800812.

5

1.Nicholson, J.K., Holmes, E. & Wilson, I.D. (2005). Gut microorganisms, mammalian metabolism and personalized health care. Nature Reviews Microbiology 3: 431438.

2.Sharland, M. (2007). The use of antibacterials in children: areport of the Specialist Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance (SACAR) Paediatric Subgroup. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 60 (S1): i15i26. 3. Gonzales, R. et al. (2001). Excessive antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases 33: 757762.

4.Dethlefsen, L. et al. (2008). The pervasive effects of an antibiotic on the human gut microbiota, as revealed by deep 16S rRNA sequencing. PLoS Biology 6: e280.

5.Haight, T.H. and Pierce, W.E. (1955). Effect of prolonged antibiotic administration on the weight of healthy young males. Journal of Nutrition 10: 151161.

6.Million, M. et al. (2013). Lactobacillus reuteri and Escherichia coli in the human gut microbiota may predict weight gain associated with vancomycin treatment. Nutrition & Diabetes 3: e87.

7.Ajslev, T.A. et al. (2011). Childhood overweight after establishment of the gut microbiota: the role of delivery mode, pre-pregnancy weight and early administration of antibiotics. International Journal of Obesity 35: 522529. 8. Cho, I. et al. (2012). Antibiotics in early life alter the murine colonic microbiome and adiposity. Nature 488: 621626.

9.Cox, L.M. et al. (2014). Altering the intestinal microbiota during a critical developmental window has lasting metabolic consequences. Cell 158: 705721.

10.Hu, X., Zhou, Q. and Luo, Y. (2010). Occurrence and source analysis of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure, soil, vegetables and groundwater from organic vegetables bases, northern China. Environmental Pollution 158: 29922998.

11.Niehus, R.M.A. and Lord, C. (2006). Early medical history of children with autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 27 (S2): S120S127.

12.Margolis, D.J., Hoffstad, O. and Biker, W. (2007). Association or lack of association between tetracycline class antibiotics used for acne vulgaris and lupus erythematosus. British Journal of Dermatology 157: 540546. 13. Tan, L. et al. (2002). Use of antimicrobial agents in consumer products. Archives of Dermatology 138: 10821086.

14.Aiello, A.E. et al. (2008). Effect of hand hygiene on infectious disease risk in the community setting: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Public Health 98: 13721381.

15.Bertelsen, R.J. et al. (2013). Triclosan exposure and allergic sensitization in Norwegian children. Allergy 68: 8491.

16.Syed, A.K. et al. (2014). Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. mBio 5: e0101513.

17.Dale, R.C. et al. (2004). Encephalitis lethargica syndrome; 20 new cases and evidence of basal ganglia autoimmunity. Brain 127: 2133.

18.Mell, L.K., Davis, R.L. and Owens, D. (2005). Association between streptococcal infection and obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourettes syndrome, and tic disorder. Pediatrics 116: 5660.

19.Fredrich, E. et al. (2013). Daily battle against body odor: towards the activity of the axillary microbiota. Trends in Microbiology 21: 305312. 20. Whitlock, D.R. and Feelisch, M. (2009). Soil bacteria, nitrite, and the skin. In: Rook, G.A.W. ed. The Hygiene Hypothesis and Darwinian Medicine. Birkhauser Basel, p. 103115.

6

1.Zhu, L. et al. (2011). Evidence of cellulose metabolism by the giant panda gut microbiome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108: 1771417719.

2.De Filippo, C. et al. (2010). Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 1469114696.

3.Ley, R. et al. (2006). Human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 444: 10221023.

4.Foster, R. and Lunn, J. (2007). 40th Anniversary Briefing Paper: Food availability and our changing diet. Nutrition Bulletin 32: 187249.

5.Lissner, L. and Heitmann, B.L. (1995). Dietary fat and obesity: evidence from epidemiology. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49: 7990.

6.Barclay, A.W. and Brand-Miller, J. (2011). The Australian paradox: A substantial decline in sugars intake over the same timeframe that overweight and obesity have increased. Nutrients 3: 491504.

7.Heini, A.F. and Weinsier, R.L. (1997). Divergent trends in obesity and fat intake patterns: The American paradox. American Journal of Medicine 102: 259264.

8.David, L.A. et al. (2014). Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Nature 505: 559563.

9.Hehemann, J.-H. et al. (2010). Transfer of carbohydrate-active enzymes from marine bacteria to Japanese gut microbiota. Nature 464: 908912.

10.Cani, P.D. et al. (2007). Metabolic endotoxaemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes 56: 17611772.

11.Neyrinck, A.M. et al. (2011). Prebiotic effects of wheat arabinoxylan related to the increase in bifidobacteria, Roseburia and Bacteroides/Prevotella in diet-induced obese mice. PLoS ONE 6: e20944.

12.Everard, A. et al. (2013). Cross-talk between Akkermansia muciniphila and intestinal epithelium controls diet-induced obesity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110: 90669071.

13.Maslowski, K.M. (2009). Regulation of inflammatory responses by gut microbiota and chemoattractant receptor GPR43. Nature 461: 12821286.

14.Brahe, L.K., Astrup, A. and Larsen, L.H. (2013). Is butyrate the link between diet, intestinal microbiota and obesity-related metabolic disorders? Obesity Reviews 14: 950959.

15.Slavin, J. (2005). Dietary fibre and body weight. Nutrition 21: 411418. 16. Liu, S. (2003). Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fibre and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78: 920927. 17. Wrangham, R. (2010). Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human. Profile Books, London.

7

1.Funkhouser, L.J. and Bordenstein, S.R. (2013). Mom knows best: The universality of maternal microbial transmission. PLoS Biology 11: e10016331.

2.Dominguez-Bello, M.-G. et al. (2011). Development of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and insights from high-throughput sequencing. Gastroenterology 140: 17131719.

3.Se Jin Song, B.S., Dominguez-Bello, M.-G. and Knight, R. (2013). How delivery mode and feeding can shape the bacterial community in the infant gut. Canadian Medical Association Journal 185: 373374.

4.Kozhumannil, K.B., Law, M.R. and Virnig, B.A. (2013). Cesarean delivery rates vary tenfold among US hospitals; reducing variation may address quality and cost issues. Health Affairs 32: 527535.

5.Gibbons, L. et al. (2010). The global numbers and costs of additionally needed and unnecessary Caesarean sections performed per year: Overuse as a barrier to universal coverage. World Health Report Background Paper, No. 30.

6.Cho, C.E. and Norman, M. (2013). Cesarean section and development of the immune system in the offspring. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 208: 249254.

7.Schieve, L.A. et al. (2014). Population attributable fractions for three perinatal risk factors for autism spectrum disorders, 2002 and 2008 autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network. Annals of Epidemiology 24: 260266.

8.MacDorman, M.F. et al. (2006). Infant and neonatal mortality for primary Cesarean and vaginal births to women with No indicated risk, United States, 19982001 birth cohorts. Birth 33: 175182.

9.Dominguez-Bello, M.-G. et al. (2010). Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 1197111975.

10.McVeagh, P. and Brand-Miller, J. (1997). Human milk oligosaccharides: Only the breast. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 33: 281286.

11.Donnet-Hughes, A. (2010). Potential role of the intestinal microbiota of the mother in neonatal immune education. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 69: 407415.

12.Cabrera-Rubio, R. et al. (2012). The human milk microbiome changes over lactation and is shaped by maternal weight and mode of delivery. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 96: 544551.

13.Stevens, E.E., Patrick, T.E. and Pickler, R. (2009). A history of infant feeding. The Journal of Perinatal Education 18: 3239.

14.Heikkil?, M.P. and Saris, P.E.J. (2003). Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by the commensal bacteria of human milk. Journal of Applied Microbiology 95: 471478.

15.Chen, A. and Rogan, W.J. et al. (2004). Breastfeeding and the risk of postneonatal death in the United States. Pediatrics 113: e435e439.

16.Ip, S. et al. (2007). Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment (Full Report) 153: 1186.

17.Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity: Research to Practice Series No. 4: Does breastfeeding reduce the risk of pediatric overweight? Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007.

18.Stuebe, A.S. (2009). The risks of not breastfeeding for mothers and infants. Reviews in Obstetrics & Gynecology 2: 222231.

19.Azad, M.B. et al. (2013). Gut microbiota of health Canadian infants: profiles by mode of delivery and infant diet at 4 months. Canadian Medical Association Journal 185: 385394.

20.Palmer, C. et al. (2007). Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota. PLoS Biology 5: 15561573.

21.Yatsunenko, T. et al. (2012). Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography. Nature 486: 222228.

22.Lax, S. et al. (2014). Longitudinal analysis of microbial interaction between humans and the indoor environment. Science 345: 10481051.

23.Gajer, P. et al. (2012). Temporal dynamics of the human vaginal microbiota. Science Translational Medicine 4: 132ra52.

24.Koren, O. et al. (2012). Host remodelling of the gut microbiome and metabolic changes during pregnancy. Cell 150: 470480.

25.Claesson, M.J. et al. (2012). Gut microbiota composition correlates with diet and health in the elderly. Nature 488: 178184.

8

1.Metchnikoff, E. (1908). The Prolongation of Life: Optimistic Studies. G.P. Putnams Sons, New York.

2.Bested, A.C., Logan, A.C. and Selhub, E.M. (2013). Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: from Metchnikoff to modern advances: Part I autointoxication revisited. Gut Pathogens 5: 116.

3.Hempel, A. et al. (2012). Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: A systematic review and metaanalysis. Journal of the American Medical Association 307: 19591969.

4.AlFaleh, K. et al. (2011). Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3.

5.Ringel, Y. and Ringel-Kulka, T. (2011). The rationale and clinical effectiveness of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 45(S3): S145S148.

6.Pelucchi, C. et al. (2012). Probiotics supplementation during pregnancy or infancy for the prevention of atopic dermatitis: A meta-analysis. Epidemiology 23: 402414.

7.Calcinaro, F. (2005). Oral probiotic administration induces interleukin-10 production and prevents spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in the nonobese diabetic mouse. Diabetologia 48: 15651575.

8.Goodall, J. (1990). The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

9.Fritz, J. et al. (1992). The relationship between forage material and levels of coprophagy in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology 11: 313318.

10.Ridaura, V.K. et al. (2013). Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice. Science 341: 1079.

11.Smits, L.P. et al. (2013). Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation. Gastroenterology 145: 946953.

12.Eiseman, B. et al. (1958). Fecal enema as an adjunct in the treatment of pseudomembranous enterocolitis. Surgery 44: 854859.

13.Borody, T.J. et al. (1989). Bowel-flora alteration: apotential cure for inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome? The Medical Journal of Australia 150: 604.

14.Vrieze, A. et al. (2012). Transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Gastroenterology 143: 913916.

15.Borody, T.J. and Khoruts, A. (2012). Fecal microbiota transplantation and emerging applications. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology 9: 8896.

16.Delzenne, N.M. et al. (2011). Targeting gut microbiota in obesity: effects of prebiotics and probiotics. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 7: 639646.

17.Petrof, E.O. et al. (2013). Stool substitute transplant therapy for the eradication of Clostridium dififcile infection: RePOOPulating the gut. Microbiome 1: 3.

18.Yatsunenko, T. et al. (2012). Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography. Nature 486: 222228.

19.. . . .: , 1988. . 68.

1.Markle, J.G.M. et al. (2013). Sex differences in the gut microbiome drive hormone-dependent regulation of autoimmunity. Science 339: 10841088.

2.Franceschi, C. et al. (2006). Inflammaging and anti-inflammaging: asystemic perspective on aging and longevity emerged from studies in humans. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 128: 92105.

3.Haiser, H.J. et al. (2013). Predicting and manipulating cardiac drug inactivation by the human gut bacterium Eggerthella lenta. Science 341: 295298.

,
,

: 1.484. /Cache: 2 / 0